Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Venous Ulcers: Pathophysiology

  • Subramoniam VaidyanathanEmail author


Progression of a clinical Class 2 venous disease to higher classes is an unpredictable but unfortunate event in the natural history of chronic venous disorders (CVD). It is not an essential event in all patients with CVD. Only a subset of patients go through this process. The triggering factors responsible for this transformation are not well understood. It is a slow degenerative process taking months and years. But when it does happen, the venous reflux which initially commenced in the superficial system extends to involve the deep veins and the perforators. Other symptoms such as edema (C3), venous eczema/lipodermatosclerosis (C4), and ulcers (C5–6) also become prominent. The term, primary chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) or simply CVI, is used to denote this condition. It includes the clinical classes from C3 to C6. Venous hypertension with microcirculatory impairment is the root cause for the clinical manifestations. The intensity of the morbidity associated with CVI was comparable with those seen in congestive cardiac failure and chronic lung disease [1].


Varicose Vein Calf Muscle Venous Hypertension Venous Ulcer Superficial Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General SurgeryAmrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita LaneKochiIndia

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