Pest Management

  • P. Parvatha Reddy


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are indigenous to soil and the plant rhizosphere and play a major role in the biocontrol of plant pathogens. They can suppress a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal diseases. PGPR can also provide protection against viral diseases. The use of PGPR has become a common practice in many regions of the world. Although significant control of plant pathogens has been demonstrated by PGPR in laboratory and greenhouse studies, results in the field have been inconsistent. Recent progress in our understanding of their diversity, colonizing ability and mechanism of action, formulation and application should facilitate their development as reliable biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Some of these rhizobacteria may also be used in integrated pest management programmes. Greater application of PGPR is possible in agriculture for biocontrol of plant pathogens. PGPR belonging to Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. are being exploited commercially for plant protection to manage various diseases. Mixtures of different PGPR strains have resulted in increased efficacy against several pathogens attacking the same crop.

PGPR are beneficial bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere and plant roots resulting in the enhancement of plant growth and protection against certain plant nematodes. The PGPR-nematode interactions have been extensively studied with the aim to manage plant-parasitic nematodes. These studies involve the selection of bacteria that can be used as biocontrol agents against nematodes. The genera involved include Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Streptomyces. PGPR also induce systemic resistance against nematode pests.

Reports on PGPR-mediated ISR against insects are restricted to very few crops. Generally, fluorescent pseudomonads influence the growth and development of insects at all stages of their growth. PGPR such as Pseudomonas putida, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Streptomyces marcescens and Flavimonas oryzihabitans are involved in the biocontrol of the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum; the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi; and tomato whitefly.

It is likely that most of naturally occurring biological control results from mixtures of antagonists rather than from high populations of a single antagonist. Several research outcomes on formulations explain that a single biocontrol agent has the ability to combat a plant pathogen. But, usage of single biocontrol agent in disease management might be also responsible for its inconsistent performance under field conditions. Advantages of strain mixtures include broad spectrum of action, enhanced efficacy and reliability and also allow the combination of various traits. Studies on combinations of biocontrol agents for plant disease control have included mixtures of PGPR and mixtures of fungi and PGPR.


Biocontrol Agent Fusarium Wilt Plant Growth Promotion Systemic Resistance Angular Leaf Spot 


  1. Aalten PM, Gowen SR (1998) Entomopathogenic nematodes and fluorescent Pseudomonas rhizosphere bacteria inhibiting Radopholus similis invasion in banana roots. Brighton Crop Prot Conf Pests Dis 2:675–680Google Scholar
  2. Alabouvette C, Lemanceau P, Steinberg C (1993) Recent advances in the biological control of fusarium wilts. Pestic Sci 37:365–373Google Scholar
  3. Ali NI, Siddiqui IA, Shahid J, Shaukat S, Zaki MJ (2002) Nematicidal activity of some strains of Pseudomonas spp. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1051–1058Google Scholar
  4. Antoun H, Beauchamp CJ, Goussard N, Chabot R, Lalande R (1998) Potential of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on nonlegumes: effect on radishes (Raphanus sativus L.). Plant Soil 204:57–67Google Scholar
  5. Backman PA, Wilson M, Murphy JF (1997) Bacteria for biological control of plant diseases. In: Rechcigl NA, Rechecigl JE (eds) Environmentally safe approaches to crop disease control. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 95–109Google Scholar
  6. Banasco P, Fuente DeLa L, Gaultieri G, Noya F, Arias A (1998) Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. as biocontrol agents against forage legume root pathogenic fungi. Soil Biol Biochem 10(Suppl 10–11):1317–1323Google Scholar
  7. Bansal RK, Verma VK (2002) Antagonistic efficacy of Azotobacter chroococcum against Meloidogyne javanica infecting brinjal. Indian J Nematol 32:132–134Google Scholar
  8. Bell E, Muller JE (1993) Characterization of an Arabidopsis lipoxygenase gene responsive to methyl jasmonate and wounding. Plant Physiol 103:1133–1137PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Boruah HP, Kumar BS (2002) Biological activity of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Folia Microbiol 47:359–363Google Scholar
  10. Broadway RM, Gongora C, Kain WC, Sanderson JA, Monroy JA, Bennett KC, Warner JB, Hoffman MP (1998) Novel chitinolytic enzymes with biological activity against herbivorous insects. J Chem Ecol 24:985–998Google Scholar
  11. Buonassisi AJ, Copeman RJ, Pepin HS, Eaton GW (1986) Effect of Rhizobium spp. on Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Can J Phytopathol 8:140–146Google Scholar
  12. Burdman S, Volpin H, Kigel J, Kaplunic Y, Okon Y (1996) Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3030–3033PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Cao L, Qiu Z, Dai X, Tan H, Lin Y, Zhou S (2004) Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from roots and leaves of banana (Musa acuminata) plants and their activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:501–504Google Scholar
  14. Chahal PPK, Chahal VPS (1986) Effect of Azotobacter chroococcum on the hatching of egg masses and eggs of Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Soil 95:289–292Google Scholar
  15. Chahal PPK, Chahal VPS (1988) Biological control of root-knot nematode on brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Azotobacter chroococcum. In: Maqbool MA, Golden AM, Gaffar A, Krusberg LQ (eds) Advances in plant nematology. National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, pp 257–263Google Scholar
  16. Chahal VPS, Chahal PPK (1999) Final technical report of PL – 480 project on microbial control of plant parasitic nematodes submitted to USDAGoogle Scholar
  17. Chahal VPS, Chahal PPK (2003) Bacillus thuringiensis for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In: Trivedi PC (ed) Nematode management in plants. Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur, pp 251–257Google Scholar
  18. Chakraborty U, Chakraborty B, Basnet M (2006) Plant growth promotion and induction of resistance in Camellia sinensis by Bacillus megaterium. J Basic Microbiol 46(Suppl 3):186–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Charest MH, Beauchamp CJ, Antoun H (2005) Effects of the humic substances of de-inking paper sludge on the antagonism between two compost bacteria and Pythium ultimum. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 52:219–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cook RJ, Baker KF (1983) The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens. American Phytopathological Society, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  21. Dandurand LM, Knudsen GR (1993) Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on hyphal growth and biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum in the spermosphere and rhizosphere of pea. Phytopathology 83:265–270Google Scholar
  22. Dicke M, Van Loon JJA (2000) Multitrophic effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in an evolutionary context. Entomol Exp Appl 97:237–249Google Scholar
  23. Duffy BK, Weller DM (1995) Use of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis alone and in combination with fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to suppress take-all of wheat. Plant Dis 79:907–911Google Scholar
  24. Duffy BK, Simon A, Weller DM (1996) Combination of Trichoderma koningii with fluorescent pseudomonads for control of take-all on wheat. Phytopathology 86:188–194Google Scholar
  25. Eapen SJ, Ramana KV, Sarma YR (1997) Evaluation of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates for control of Meloidogyne incognita in black pepper (Piper nigrum L). In: Edison S, Ramana KV, Sasikumar B, Babu KN, Eapen SJ (eds) Biotechnology of spices, medicinal & aromatic plants. Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, pp 129–133Google Scholar
  26. Fuhrmann J, Wollum AG (1989) Biol Fertil Soils 7:108–112Google Scholar
  27. Goel AK, Sindhu SS, Dadarwal KR (2002) Biol Fertil Soils 36:391–396Google Scholar
  28. Guetsky R, Elad Y, Shtienberg D, Dinoor A (2002) Establishment, survival and activity of the biocontrol agents Pichia guilermondii and Bacillus mycoides applied as a mixture on strawberry plants. Biocontrol Sci Technol 12:705–714Google Scholar
  29. Haas D, Defago G (2005) Nat Rev Microbiol 3:307–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hallmann J, Quadt-Hallmann A, Miller WG, Sikora RA, Lindow SE (2001) Endophytic colonization of plants by the biocontrol agent Rhizobium etli G12 in relation to Meloidogyne incognita infection. Phytopathology 91:415–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanafi A, Traore M, Schnitzler WH, Woitke M (2007) Induced resistance of tomato to whiteflies and Pythium with the PGPR Bacillus subtilis in a soilless crop grown under greenhouse conditions. In: Hanafi A, Schnitzler WH (eds) Proceedings of the VIIIth IS on protected cultivation in mild winter climates, pp 315–322. Acta Hort. 747Google Scholar
  32. Handelsman J, Stabb EV (1996) Biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens. Plant Cell 8:1855–1869PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Hassett D, Cuppoletti J, Trapnell B, Lymar S, Rowe J, Yoon S, Hilliard G, Parvatiyar K, Kamani M, Wozniak D, Hwang S, McDermott T, Ochsner U (2002) Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54:1425–1443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoffland E, Hakulinem J, Van Pelt JA (1996) Comparison of systemic resistance induced by avirulent and nonpathogenic Pseudomonas species. Phytopathology 86:757–762Google Scholar
  35. Hubbard JP, Harmand GE, Hadar Y (1983) Effect of soilborne Pseudomonas spp. on the biological control agent, Trichoderma hamatum, on pea seeds. Phytopathology 73:655–659Google Scholar
  36. Insunza V, Alstrom S, Eriksson KB (2002) Root bacteria from nematicidal plants and their biocontrol potential against trichodorid nematodes in potato. Plant Soil 241:271–278Google Scholar
  37. Janisiewicz WJ (1996) Ecological diversity, niche overlap and coexistence of antagonists used in developing mixtures for biocontrol of postharvest diseases of apples. Phytopathology 86:473–479Google Scholar
  38. Kavitha K, Nakkeeran S, Chandrasekar G, Fernando WGD, Mathiyazhagan S, Renukadevi P, Krishnamoorthy AS (2003) Role of antifungal antibiotics, siderophores and IAA production in biocontrol of Pythium aphanidermatum inciting damping off in tomato by Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Bacillus subtilis. Proceedings of the 6th international workshop on PGPR. Indian Institute of Spice Research, Calicut, pp 493–497Google Scholar
  39. Kendrick WB (1963) Mycopath Appl 19:241–245Google Scholar
  40. Khan MR, Tarannum Z (1999) Effects of field application of various micro-organisms on Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Nematol Medit 27:233–238Google Scholar
  41. Kilian M, Steiner U, Krebs B, Junge H, Schmiedeknecht G, Hain R (2000) FZB24 Bacillus subtilis – mode of action of a microbial agent enhancing plant vitality. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer 1:72–93, 1/00Google Scholar
  42. Kloepper JW (1993) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biological control agents. In: Metting FB Jr (ed) Soil microbial ecology- applications in agricultural and environmental management. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 255–274Google Scholar
  43. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1981) Development of powder formulation of rhizobacteria for inoculation of potato seed pieces. Phytopathology 71:590–592Google Scholar
  44. Kloepper JW, Tuzun S, Liu L, Wei G (1993) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as inducers of systemic disease resistance. In: Lumsden RD, Waughn JL (eds) Pest management: biologically based technologies. American Chemical Society Books, Washington, DC, pp 156–165Google Scholar
  45. Kremer RJ, Kennedy AC (1996) Rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents of weeds. Weed Technol 10(Suppl 3):601–609Google Scholar
  46. Kumar BSD, Berggren I, Martensson AM (2001) Potential for improving pea production by co-inoculation with fluorescent Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. Plant Soil 229:25–34Google Scholar
  47. Larkin RP, Fravel DR (1998) Efficacy of various fungal and bacterial biocontrol organisms for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Dis 82:1022–1028Google Scholar
  48. Leavy E, Eyal Z, Chet I, Hochman A (1992) Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 40:163–171Google Scholar
  49. Leeman M, Den Ouden FM, van Pelt JA, Dirks FPM, Steiji H (1996) Iron availability affects induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of radish by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Phytopathology 86:149–155Google Scholar
  50. Lemanceau P, Alabouvette C (1993) Suppression of Fusarium wilts by fluorescent Pseudomonas: mechanisms and applications. Biocontrol Sci Technol 3:219–234Google Scholar
  51. Lemanceau P, Bakker PAHM, de Kogel WJ, Alabouvette C, Schippers B (1993) Antagonistic effect of non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Fo47 and pseudobactin 358 upon pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:74–82PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1993a) Induction of systemic resistance against cucumber bacterial angular leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans with two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Abstr.). Phytopathology 82:1340Google Scholar
  53. Liu L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1993b) Induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium oxysporum by PGPR strains (Abstr.). In: Proceedings of the sixth international congress of plant pathology, vol 24Google Scholar
  54. Liu L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1995a) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against Fusarium wilt by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 85:695–698Google Scholar
  55. Liu L, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1995b) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against bacterial leaf spot by plant growth promoting rhizhobacteria. Phytopathology 85:843–847Google Scholar
  56. Lugtenberg BJJ, Dekkers L, Bloemberg GV (2001) Molecular determinants of rhizosphere colonization by Pseudomonas. Ann Rev Phytopathol 38:461–490Google Scholar
  57. Mani MP, Rajeswari S, Sivakumar CV (1998) Management of the potato cyst nematodes, Globodera spp. through plant rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. J Biol Control 12:131–134Google Scholar
  58. Mani MP, Sivakumar CV, Ramakrishnan S (1999) Status of Pasteuria penetrans in root-knot nematode infested vineyards of Tamil Nadu. Indian J Nematol 29:104Google Scholar
  59. Manjula K, Podile AR (2001) Chitin supplemented formulations improve biocontrol and plant growth promoting efficiency of Bacillus subtilis AF1. Can J Microbiol 47:618–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mathiyazhagan S, Kavitha K, Nakkeeran S, Chandrasekar G, Manian K, Renukadevi P, Krishnamoorthy AS, Fernando WGD (2004) PGPR mediated management of stem blight of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) caused by Corynespora cassiicola (Berk and Curt) Wei. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot 33:183–199Google Scholar
  61. Mazzola M (2002) Mechanisms of natural soil suppressiveness to soilborne diseases. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:557–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mew TW, Rosales AM, Maningas TW (1994) Biological control of rhizoctonia sheath blight and blast of rice. In: Ryder MH, Stephens PM, Bowen GD (eds) Improving plant productivity with rhizosphere bacteria. Proceedings of the third international workshop on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Adelaide, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  63. Nagórska K, Bikowski M, Obuchowski M (2007) Multicellular behaviour and production of a wide variety of toxic substances support usage of Bacillus subtilis as a powerful biocontrol agent. Acta Biochim Pol 54(Suppl 3):495–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Naik D (2004) Biotechnological approaches for the management of wilt disease complex in capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) and Egg Plant (Solanum melongena) with special emphasis on biological control. Ph. D. thesis, Kuvempu University, ShimogaGoogle Scholar
  65. Nakkeeran S, Kavitha K, Mathiyazhagan S, Fernando WGD, Chandrasekar G, Renukadevi P (2004) Induced systemic resistance and plant growth promotion by Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA-23 and Bacillus subtilis strain CBE4 against rhizome rot of turmeric (Curcuma longa L). Can J Plant Pathol 26:417–418Google Scholar
  66. Nandakumar R (1998) Induction of systemic resistance in rice with fluorescent pseudomonads for the management of sheath blight disease. M.Sc. (Agri.). thesis, TNAU, Coimbatore, India, 105 ppGoogle Scholar
  67. Negi YK, Garg SK, Kumar J (2005) Cold-tolerant fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates from Garhwal Himalayas as potential plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents in pea. Curr Sci 89(Suppl 12):25Google Scholar
  68. Niknam GR, Dhawan SC (2001a) Induction of systemic resistance by Bacillus subtilis isolate Bs1 against Rotylenchulus reniformis in tomato. National Congress on Centenary of Nematology in India – appraisal & future plans. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp 143–144Google Scholar
  69. Niknam GR, Dhawan SC (2001b) Effect of seed bacterization, soil drench and bare root-dip application methods of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Pf1 on the suppression of Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting tomato. National Congress on Centenary of Nematology in India – appraisal & future plans. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, p 144Google Scholar
  70. Otsu Y, Matsuda Y, Mori H, Ueki H, Nakajima T, Fujiwara K, Matsumoto M, Azuma N, Kakutani K, Nonomura T, Sakuratani Y, Shinogi T, Tosa Y, Mayama S, Toyoda H (2004) Stable phylloplane colonization by entomopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens KPM-018P and biological control of phytophagous ladybird beetles Epilacna vigintioctopunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biocontrol Sci Technol 14:427–439Google Scholar
  71. Parvatha Reddy P, Nagesh M, Rao MS, Rama N (2000) Management of Tylenchulus semipenetrans by integration of Pseudomonas fluorescens with oil cakes. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on citriculture, Nagpur, India, pp 830–833Google Scholar
  72. Paulitz TC, Belanger RB (2001) Biological control in greenhouse systems. Ann Rev Phytopathol 39:103–133Google Scholar
  73. Perveen S, Ehteshamul-Haque S, Ghaffar A (1998) Efficacy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of root rot-root knot disease complex on some vegetables. Nematol Medit 26:209–212Google Scholar
  74. Pierson EA, Weller DM (1994) Use of mixtures of fluorescent pseudomonads to suppress take-all and improve the growth of wheat. Phytopathology 84:940–947Google Scholar
  75. Raaijimakers MJ, Leeman M, Mark MP, Schot V (1995) Dose response relationships in biological control of Fusarium wilt of radish by Pseudomonas sp. Phytopathology 85:1075–1081Google Scholar
  76. Raaijmakers JM, Vlami M, de Souza JT (2002) Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:537–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Racke J, Sikora RA (1992) Isolation, formulation and antagonistic activity of rhizosphere bacteria toward the potato cyst nematode. Globodera pallida Soil Biol Biochem 24:521–526Google Scholar
  78. Ramamoorthy V, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (1999) Isolation, characterization and screening fluorescent pseudomonads for managing damping-off disease of major vegetable crops. Symposium on plant disease management for sustainable agriculture. Indian Phytopathological Society, Southern Zone held at C.P.C.R.I. Kayankulam, Kerala, India, p 26Google Scholar
  79. Ramamoorthy V, Viswanathan R, Raguchander T, Prakasam V, Samiyappan R (2001) Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in crop plants against pests and diseases. Crop Prot 20:1–11Google Scholar
  80. Rao MS, Shylaja M (2004) Role of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Migula) in induction of systemic resistance (ISR) and managing Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Oliveira) on carrot (Daucus carota L.). Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 10:87–93Google Scholar
  81. Rao MS, Naik D, Shylaja M, Parvatha Reddy P (2002) Prospects for the management of nematode disease complex in capsicum using biological control agents. In: Proceedings of international conference on vegetables, Bangalore, pp 347–351Google Scholar
  82. Raupach GS, Kloepper JW (1998) Mixtures of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens. Phytopathology 88:1158–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Reitz M, Rudolph K, Schröder I, Hoffmann-Hergarten S, Hallmann J, Sikora RA (2000) Lipopolysaccharides of Rhizobium etli strain G12 act in potato roots as an inducing agent of systemic resistance to infection by the cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3515–3518PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Ryan KJ, Ray CG, Sherris (2004) Medical microbiology (4th ed). McGraw HillGoogle Scholar
  85. Sabaratnam S, Traquair JA (2002) Formulation of a Streptomyces biocontrol agent for the suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off in tomato transplants. Biol Control 23:245–253Google Scholar
  86. Samiyappan R (2009) Biological control of fungal nematode complex diseases by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In: Rajendran G, Ramakrishnan S, Subramanian S, Jonathan EI, Sivakumar M, Kumar S (eds) Biological control of plant parasitic nematodes. Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur, pp 69–77Google Scholar
  87. Santhi A (2003) Management of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Pratylenchus coffeae in Banana. Ph. D. thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, CoimbatoreGoogle Scholar
  88. Santhi A, Sivakumar CV (1995) Biocontrol potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Migula) against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 on tomato. J Biol Control 9:113–115Google Scholar
  89. Santhi A, Rajeswari S, Sivakumar CV (1998) Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Migula) for the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera Linn.). In: Mehta UK (ed) Nematology – challenges and opportunities in 21st century. Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, pp 203–206Google Scholar
  90. Santhi A, Sundarababu R, Sivakumar CV (1999) Field evaluation of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens for the management of the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Proceedings of the national symposium on rational approaches in nematode mangement for sustainable agriculture. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp 38–42Google Scholar
  91. Schippers B (1992) Prospects for management of natural suppressiveness to control soilborne pathogens. In: Tiamos EC, Panavizas GC, Cook RJ (eds) Biological control of plant diseases, progress and challenges for the future. NATO ASI series A: life sciences, vol 230. Plenum Press, New York, pp 21–34Google Scholar
  92. Schroth MN, Hancock JG (1982) Science 216:1376–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Seenivasan N, Parameswaran S, Sridar P, Gopalakrishnan C, Gnanamurthy P (2001) Application of bioagents and neem cake as soil application for the management of root-knot nematode in turmeric. National Congress on Centenary of Nematology in India – appraisal & future plans. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, p 164Google Scholar
  94. Siddiqui ZA (2005) PGPR: prospective biocontrol agents of plant pathogens. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 111–142Google Scholar
  95. Siddiqui ZA, Mahmood I (1995) Biological control of Heterodera cajani and Fusarium udum by Bacillus subtilis, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus fasciculatum on pigeonpea. Fund Appl Nematol 18:559–566Google Scholar
  96. Siddiqui ZA, Mahmood I (1999) Role of bacteria in the management of plant parasitic nematodes: a review. Bioresour Technol 69:167–179Google Scholar
  97. Sikora RA (1992) Management of the antagonistic potential in agricultural ecosystems for the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Ann Rev Phytopathol 30:245–270Google Scholar
  98. Singh PP, Shin YC, Park CS, Chung YR (1999) Biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by chitinolytic bacteria. Phytopathology 89:92–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sivakumar M, Vadivelu S (1999) Management of Meloidogyne incognita on grapevine using biocontrol agents, botanicals and biofertilizers. Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 5:127–131Google Scholar
  100. Sobita Devi L, Dutta U (2002) Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita) on okra plant. Indian J Nematol 32:215Google Scholar
  101. Sosamma VK, Koshy PK (1995) Effect of Pasteuria penetrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus on population build up of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on black pepper. National symposium on nematode problems of India – an appraisal of the nematode mangement with eco-friendly approaches and biocomponents. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, p 47Google Scholar
  102. Spiegel Y, Cohn E, Galper S, Sharon E, Chet I (1991) Evaluation of a newly isolated bacterium, Pseudomonas chitinolytica sp. nov., for controlling the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Biocontrol Sci Technol 1:115–125Google Scholar
  103. Taechowisan T, Peberdy JF, Lumyong S (2003) Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from selected plants and their antifungal activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:381–385Google Scholar
  104. Taechowisan T, Lu C, Shen Y, Lumyong S (2005) Secondary metabolites from endophytic Streptomyces aureofaciens CMUAc130 and their antifungal activity. Microbiology 151:1691–1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tuzun S, Kloeppper J (1995) Practical application and implementation of induced resistance. In: Hammerschmidt R, Kuć J (eds) Induced resistance to disease in plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 152–168Google Scholar
  106. Valenzuela-Soto JH, Estrada-Herna’ndez MG, Ibarra-Laclette E, De’lanoFrier JP (2010) Inoculation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) with growth promoting Bacillus subtilis retards whitefly Bemisia tabaci development. Planta 231:397–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Peer R, Niemann GJ, Schippers B (1991) Induced resistance and phytoalexin accumulation in biological control of Fusarium wilt of carnation by Pseudomonas sp. WCS417r. Phytopathology 81:728–734Google Scholar
  108. Verma AC (2001) N.D. University of agriculture and technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh. In: Dhawan SC et al. (eds) Indian nematology-progress and perspectives, Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp 121–125Google Scholar
  109. Verma KK, Gupta DC, Paruthi IJ (1999) Preliminary trial on the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed treatment against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Proceedings of the national symposium on rational approaches in nematode management for sustainable agriculture. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp 79–81Google Scholar
  110. Vidhyasekaran P, Sethuraman K, Rajappan K, Vasumathi K (1997) Powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens to control pigeonpea wilt. Biol Control 8:166–171Google Scholar
  111. Viswanathan R (1999) Induction of systemic resistance against red rot disease in sugarcane by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Ph.D. thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India, 175 ppGoogle Scholar
  112. Wei G, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S (1991) Induction of systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum orbiculare by select strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 81:1508–1512Google Scholar
  113. Weller DM (1988) Biological control of soil borne plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Ann Rev Phytopathol 26:379–407Google Scholar
  114. Weller DM (2007) Pseudomonas biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogens: looking back over 30 years. Phytopathology 97:250–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Weller DM, Thomashow LS (1993) Use of rhizobacteria for biocontrol. Curr Opin Biotechnol 4:306–311Google Scholar
  116. Weller DM, Raaijmakers JM, McSpadden Gardener BB, Thomashow LS (2002) Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens. Ann Rev Phytopathol 40:309–348Google Scholar
  117. Wipat A, Harwood CR (1999) FEMS Microb Ecol 28:1–9Google Scholar
  118. Zehnder G, Kloepper J, Tuzun S, Yao CB, Wei G, Chambliss O, Shelby R (1997a) Insect feeding on cucumber mediated by rhizobacteria-induced plant resistance. Entomol Exp Appl 83:81–85Google Scholar
  119. Zehnder G, Kloepper JW, Yao C, Wei G (1997b) Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Econ Entomol 90:196–391Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Parvatha Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations