Advertisement

Effects on Depression-Like Behavior

  • Shabnum Nabi
Chapter

Abstract

Depression is a heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder with symptoms manifested at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological level. This is perhaps why it is so difficult to mimic the disorder in the laboratory (American Psychiatric Association 1994). Many of the human symptoms of depression such as recurring thoughts of death or suicide or having excessive thoughts of guilt as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM IV) are impossible to be modeled in mice or rats. The question, therefore, remains impenetrable as to whether we can ever assume a mouse or rat is “depressed.” Evolutionary theories have been proposed for psychiatric disorders (Jones and Blackshaw 2000; Nesse 2000), which would plausibly predict that also lower animal species can exhibit behaviors useful in modeling human depression. However, such hypotheses are heavily debated and are difficult to address empirically (Dubrovsky 2002; McLoughlin 2002). Another difficulty in assessing depressive states in rodents is that the underlying pathophysiology in depression is still unresolved. Further, the mode of action of clinically effective antidepressants is not yet understood beyond the fact that they primarily alter monoamine neurotransmission (Nestler et al. 2002; Frazer 1997; Richelson 2001; Blier 2001).

Keywords

American Psychiatric Association Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Force Swim Test Immobility Period Tail Suspension Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. Author, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Blier P (2001) Possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying faster onset of antidepressant action. J Clin Psychiatry 62:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Castoldi AF, Coccini T, Ceccatelli S, Manzo L (2001) Neurotoxicity and molecular effects of methylmercury. Brain Res Bull 55:197–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cryan JF, Mombereau C (2004) In search of a depressed mouse: utility of models for studying depression-related behavior in genetically modified mice. Mol Psychiatry 9:326–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cryan JF, Markou A, Lucki I (2002) Assessing antidepressant activity in rodents: recent developments and future needs. Trends Pharmacol Sci 23:238–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cryan JF, Mombereau C, Vassout A (2005) The tail suspension test as a model for assessing antidepressant activity: review of pharmacological and genetic studies in mice. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:571–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dalvi A, Lucki I (1999) Murine models of depression. Psychopharmacology 147:14–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dixon AK (1998) Ethological strategies for defence in animals and humans: their role in some psychiatric disorders. Br J Med Psychol 71:417–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dubrovsky B (2002) Evolutionary psychiatry: adaptationist and nonadaptationist conceptualizations. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frazer A (1997) Pharmacology of antidepressants. J Clin Psychopharmacol 17:2S–18SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geyer M, Markou A (2001) Animal models in psychiatric disorders. In: Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ (eds) Psychopharmacology, the fourth generation of the progress. Raven, New York, pp 155–173Google Scholar
  12. Gilbert P, Allan S (1998) The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: an exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychol Med 28:585–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grum DK, Kobal AB, Arneric N, Horvat M, Zenko B, Dzeroski S, Osredkar J (2006) Personality traits in miners with past occupational elemental mercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect 114:290–296PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones I, Blackshaw JK (2000) An evolutionary approach to psychiatry. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 34:8–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karolewicz B, Paul IA (2001) Group housing of mice increases immobility and antidepressant sensitivity in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Eur J Pharmacol 415:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu X, Gershenfeld HK (2001) Genetic differences in the tail-suspension test and its relationship to imipramine response among 11 inbred strains of mice. Biol Psychiatry 49:575–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lucki I (2001) A prescription to resist proscriptions for murine models of depression. Psychopharmacology 153:395–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McKinney WT (2001) Overview of the past contributions in animal models and their changing place in psychiatry. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 6:68–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McLoughlin G (2002) Is depression normal in human beings? A critique of the evolutionary perspective. Int J Ment Health Nurs 11:170–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nesse RM (2000) Is depression an adaptation? Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nestler EJ, Barrot M, DiLeone RJ, Eisch AJ, Gold SJ, Monteggia LM (2002) Neurobiology of depression review. Neuron 34:13–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ouagazzal AM, Moreau JL, Pauly-Evers M, Jenck F (2003) Impact of environmental housing conditions on the emotional responses of mice deficient for nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide precursor gene. Behav Brain Res 144:111–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Porsolt RD, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M (1977) Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature 266:730–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Richelson MDE (2001) Pharmacology of antidepressants. Mayo Clin Proc 76:511–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sarafian T, Verity MA (1991) Oxidative mechanisms underlying methyl mercury neurotoxicity. Int J Dev Neurosci 9:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P (1985) The tail suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology 85:367–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thierry B, Steru L, Chermat R, Simon P (1984) Searching-waiting strategy: a candidate for an evolutionary model of depression. Behav Neural Biol 41:180–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Weingartner H, Silberman E (1982) Models of cognitive impairment: cognitive changes in depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 18:27–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiss JM, Kilts CD (1998) Animal models of depression and schizophrenia. In: Nemeroff CB, Schatzberg AF (eds) American Psychiatric Press textbook of psychopharmacology, 2nd edn. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp 89–131Google Scholar
  30. Willner P, Mitchell PJ (2002) The validity of animal models of predisposition to depression. Behav Pharmacol 13:169–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yee S, Choi BH (1994) Methylmercury poisoning induces oxidative stress in the mouse brain. Exp Mol Pathol 60:188–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shabnum Nabi
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Brain Research Centre (IBRC) Jawaharlal Nehru Medical CollegeAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations