Symptoms Caused by Phytonematodes and Disease Diagnosis

  • N. G. Ravichandra


Phytonematodes are nearly microscopic, worm-shaped animals virtually invisible to the naked eye when in the soil. They are rightly called as “hidden enemies” of crops. They can cause significant plant damage ranging from negligible injury to the total destruction of plant material. The severity of plant injury resulting from nematode activity depends on several factors such as the combination of plant and nematode species and prevailing environmental factors including rainfall, soil types, land contour, and cultural practices. Although a few nematode species feed on aboveground plant parts, such as leaves, stems, flowers, and seeds, the majority of these parasites feed on underground parts of plants, including roots, bulbs, and tubers. Because of this belowground, “hidden” feeding activity, nematode damage to plants cannot always be diagnosed readily.


Nematode Species Aboveground Plant Part Nematode Infestation Nematode Damage Belowground Plant Part 


  1. Ravichandra, N. G. (2008). Plant nematology (695 pp). New Delhi: I.K. International Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. G. Ravichandra
    • 1
  1. 1.AICRP (Nematodes) Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of Agricultural SciencesBangaloreIndia

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