Major Phytonematodes Associated with Horticultural Crops and Their Diagnostic Keys

  • N. G. Ravichandra


Since phytonematodes are microscopic, morpho-anatomical characters have to be precisely observed and interpreted. Detailed studies on morpho-anatomical characters including their variability in several populations from many hosts and geographical regions provide the basis for creating new species. Major criteria considered to diagnose a particular species of a nematode include morphometric data, sex and sexual dimorphism, body size and shape, cuticle, cephalic region, stylet and esophagus, intestine, prerectum, rectum and anus, male and female reproductive system, tail, and juvenile characters (Siddiqi 2001). Biological characters, especially host preference, can be used in the identification of some plant-parasitic nematodes. However, the effects of physical, chemical, and biological factors on host–parasite relationships are often great. The presence or absence of males is also a differentiating character, but it is known that at least in some species, males may arise as a response to environmental stress.


Lateral Field Nerve Ring Excretory Pore Scientific Classification Female Nematode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. G. Ravichandra
    • 1
  1. 1.AICRP (Nematodes) Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of Agricultural SciencesBangaloreIndia

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