Physiologic Specialization (Pathogenic Variability)

  • Govind Singh Saharan
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
  • Arvind Kumar


Physiologic specialization has long been known in Albugo candida. Eberhardt (Zentr Bakteriol Parasitenk, 12:235–249, 426–439, 614–631, 714–727, 1904a, b, c, d) recognized two specialized groupings of Albugo, one attacking Capsella, Lepidium, and Arabis, and the other attacking Brassica, Sinapis, and Diplotaxis. He was, however, hesitant to use the phrase “biological forms” for this fungus. Later, Melhus (Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin, 15:25–91, 1911) also suggested the existence of specialization in A. candida. Pape and Rabbas (Mitt Biol R-Anst L and U Forstw U 18:58–59, 1920) demonstrated that this fungus on Capsella bursa-pastoris should be considered a distinct form. Pfister (Centralbl Mr Bakt Abt II, 71(8–14):312–313, 1927) found several biological forms in Albugo tragopogonis. Taubenhaus (The culture and diseases of the sweet potato, 120–123, p. 111, 1923) and Ciferri (Nuovo Giom Bot Ital, 35:112–134, 1928) reported that distinct races occurred on Ipomoea batatas and on Ipomoea spp. in the USA and West Indies. Ciferri (Nuovo Giom Bot Ital, 35:112–134, 1928) divided Albugo ipomoeae-panduratae into two biologic species. Savulescu and Rayss (Annales Mycologici, 28:297–320, 1930) distinguished eight morphological forms within A. candida. Later, Savulescu (Anal Acad Rous Mem Sect Stimtiface Soc, 21:13, 1946a, Rev App Mycol, 27:542, 1946b) made ten varieties of A. candida based on host specialization and morphology. Hiura (J Jap Bot, 5:1–20, 1930) distinguished three biologic forms of A. candida, the first on Raphanus sativus, the second on Brassica juncea, and the third on Brassica rapa var. Chinensis. Napper (J Pomol Hortic Sci, 11:81–100, 1933) described 20 races of A. candida in Britain. Togashi and Shibasaki (Bull Imp Coll Agric For, 18:88, 1934) found that sporangia of Albugo from Brassica and Raphanus were 20 × 18 µM in size, while those from Cardamine, Capsella, Draba, and Arabis measured 15.5 × 14.5 µM; these were classified as macrospora and microspora, respectively.


Western Australia Brassica Species Brassica Juncea Biological Form Host Differential 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Govind Singh Saharan
    • 1
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
    • 2
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
    • 3
  • Arvind Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.Agriculture and Agi-Food Canada Saskatoon Research StationSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Crop Protection UnitDirectorate of Rapeseed – Mustard Research (ICAR)BharatpurIndia
  4. 4.Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan – IIIndian Council of Agricultural ResearchNew DelhiIndia

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