Disease Development (Epidemiology)

  • Govind Singh Saharan
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
  • Arvind Kumar


Incidence and severity of white rust (WR) varies from year to year on different crops. Factors affecting initiation and development of the disease have not been studied in detail. On spinach, sporangial production is profuse at low temperatures but oospore production is very abundant at higher temperatures (Raabe and Pound, Phytopathology 42:473, 1952a, Phytopathology 42:448–452, 1952b). On water spinach in Hong Kong, during the main growing season (May to October), temperatures of 24–29 °C with heavy dew formation is ideal for infection and disease development (Edie and Ho, Trans Br Mycol Soc, 55:205–216, 1970). On sunflower in Australia, WR development is greatest between 20–25 °C (Kajomchaiyakul and Brown, Trans Br Mycol Soc, 66:91–95, 1976). Sempio (Riv Pat Veg, 28:393–397, 1938, Riv Pat Veg, 30:29–64, 1940) reported that the optimum temperatures for the development of WR on potted radish plants were 16–18 °C, with a range of 12–21 °C; the disease did not develop below 6–7 °C or above 28–29 °C. Relative humidity (RH) of 60–80 % was more favourable than a saturated environment, CO2 between 70 and 80 mm, and Hg (9.6–11 %) inhibited disease development. The fungus was highly sensitive to the effect of ultraviolet light; the optimum dose for inhibition of disease was 25–30 min. WR of horseradish is most favoured at 15–20 °C (Takeshita, Dissertation Abstracts, 14:1493–1494, 1954). On Amaranthus species, ideal condition for the spread of WR around Delhi (India) occurs from October to the end of February. During this period, warm days with low humidity facilitate desiccation of sporangia while cool temperatures and heavy dew deposition at night provide optimum conditions for sporangial germination and infection (Mishra and Chona, Indian Phytopath, 16:333–343, 1963).


Weather Variable Maximum Daily Temperature Indian Mustard Minimum Daily Temperature Weather Factor 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Govind Singh Saharan
    • 1
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
    • 2
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
    • 3
  • Arvind Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.Agriculture and Agi-Food Canada Saskatoon Research StationSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Crop Protection UnitDirectorate of Rapeseed – Mustard Research (ICAR)BharatpurIndia
  4. 4.Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan – IIIndian Council of Agricultural ResearchNew DelhiIndia

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