Advertisement

Techniques

  • Govind Singh Saharan
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
  • Arvind Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

The nonseptate and intercellular mycelium of Albugo species feeds by means of globose or knob-shaped intracellular haustoria, one to several in each host cells. The detail of haustorial formation and development has been given by Berlin and Bowen (American Journal of Botany, 51, 650–652,1964a, American Journal of Botany, 51, 445–452, b); Coffey (Canadian Journal of Botany, 53, 1285–1299, 1975, Canadian Journal of Botany, 61, 2004–2014, 1983); Davison (Fr. Annals of Botany (Lond.), 32, 613–621, 1968); Fraymouth (Transactions of British Mycological Society, 39, 79–107, 1956), and Wager (Annals of Botany, 10, 89–91 , 1896).

Keywords

Field Technique Callus Cell Turnip Rape Zoospore Suspension Zoospore Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander, H. M., & Burdon, J. J. (1984). The effect of disease induced by A. candida (white rust) and P. parasitica (downy mildew) on the survival and reproduction of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd’s purse). Oecologia, 64, 314–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, T. (2007). Molecular detection and pathology of the oomycete Albugo candida (white rust) in threatened coastal cresses. DOC Research & Development Series 274. Wellington: Science and Technical Publishing (pp. 5–18). (Department of Conservation)Google Scholar
  3. Berlin, J. D., & Bowen, C. C. (1964a). Centrioles in fungus Albugo candida. American Journal of Botany, 51, 650–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berlin, J. D., & Bowen, C. C. (1964b). The host-parasite interface of Albugo candida on Raphanus sativus. American Journal of Botany, 51, 445–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Black, M. C., & Dainello, F. J. (1986). Comparison of percent leaf area with white rust lesions and two other methods for evaluating partial resistance to A. occidentalis in spinach. Phytopathology, 76, 1087. (Abstr.)Google Scholar
  6. Coffey, M. D. (1975). Ultrastructural features of the haustorial apparatus of the white blister fungus A. candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53, 1285–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coffey, M. D. (1983). Cytochemical specialization at the haustorial interface of a biotrophic fungal parasite Albugo candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61, 2004–2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davison, E. M. (1968). Cytochemistry and ultrastructure of hyphae and haustoria of P. parasitica (Pers. ex Fr.). Fr. Annals of Botany (Lond.), 32, 613–621.Google Scholar
  9. DeBary, A. (1866). Morphologie und physiologic der Pilze, Flechten und Myxomyceten. Leipzig: Welhelm Engelmann.Google Scholar
  10. Fan, Z., Rimmer, S. R., & Stefansson, B. R. (1983). Inheritance of resistance to Albugo candida in rape (Brassica napus L.). Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 25, 420–424.Google Scholar
  11. Francis, S. A., Dewey, F. M., & Gurr, S. J. (1996). The role of cutinase in germling development and infection by Erysiphe graminis fsp. hordei. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 49, 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fraymouth, J. (1956). Haustoria of the Peronosoporales. Transactions of British Mycological Society, 39, 79–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fox, D. T., & Williams, P. H. (1984). Correlation of spore production by A. candida and a visual white rust rating scale. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6, 175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goyal, B. K., Verma, P. R., & Spurr, D. T. (1995). Temperature effects on oospore development of Albugo candida race 2V in detached Brassica juncea leaves. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26, 224–228.Google Scholar
  15. Goyal, B. K., Verma, P. R., Spurr, D. T., & Reddy, M. S. (1996a). Albugo candida staghead formation in Brassica juncea in relation to plant age, inoculation sites, and incubation conditions. Plant Pathology, 45, 787–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goyal, B. K., Verma, P. R., Seguin-Swartz, G., & Spurr, D. T. (1996b). Growth of Albugo candida in leaf callus cultures of Brassica rapa. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18, 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartmann, H., & Watson, A. K. (1980). Damage to common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) caused by the white rust fungus A. tragopogi. Weed Science, 28, 632–635.Google Scholar
  18. Heald, F. D. (1926). Diseases due to downy mildew and allies. In J. C. Lean (Ed.), Manual of plant diseases. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc. (Vol. 16, pp. 390–426).Google Scholar
  19. Hudspeth, D. S. S., Nadler, S. A., & Hudspeth, M. E. S. (2000). A cox2 phylogeny of the Peronosporomycestes (Oomycetes). Mycologia, 92, 674–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobson, D. J., LeFebvre, S. M., Ojerio, R. S., Berwald, N., & Heikkinen, E. (1998). Persistent, systemic, asymptomatic infections of A. candida, an oomycete parasite, detected in three wild crucifer species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 739–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jenkyn, J. F., Hirst, J. M., & King, G. (1973). An apparatus for the isolated propagation of foliar pathogens and their hosts. Annals of Applied Biology, 73, 9–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kolte, S. J., Sachan, J. N., & Rimmer, S. R. (1998). A new simple technique for development of seedling infection of white rust of rapeseed-mustard from oospores of A. candida. Indian Phytopathology, 51, 287–289.Google Scholar
  23. Lahiri, I., & Bhowmik, T.P. (1993). Growth of the white rust fungus Albugo candida in callus tissue of Brassica juncea. Journal of General Microbiology, 139, 2875-2878.Google Scholar
  24. Lakra, B. S., & Saharan, G. S. (1988b). Influence of host resistance on colonization and incubation period of A. candida in mustard. Cruciferae Newsletter, 13, 108–109.Google Scholar
  25. Lakra, B. S., & Saharan, G. S. (1989). Sporangial viability of Albugo candida infecting mustard under different storage conditions. Oil Crops Newsletter, 6, 22–24.Google Scholar
  26. Lakra, B. S., & Saharan, G. S. (1988c). Morphological and pathological variations in Albugo candida associated with Brassica species. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 18, 149–156.Google Scholar
  27. Lakra, B. S., & Saharan, G. S. (1990). Role of host resistance and planting time in progression of white rust and yield of mustard. Indian Phytopathology, 43, 201–206.Google Scholar
  28. Lee, S. B., & Taylor, J. W. (1990). Isolation of DNA from fungal mycelia and single spores. In M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, & T. J. White (Eds.), PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications (pp. 282–287). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Leckie, D., Astley, D., Crute, I. R., Ellis, P. R., Pink, D. A. C., Boukema, I., Monteiro, A. A., & Dias, J. S. (1996). The location and exploitation of genes for pest and disease resistance in European gene bank collection of Horticultural Brassicas. In J. S. Dias, I. R. Crute, & A. A. Monteiro (Eds.), Proceedings of international symposium on Brassicas, 9th crucifer genetics workshop (Vols. 407, pp. 95–101) (Acta Hort.).Google Scholar
  30. Liu, J. Q., & Rimmer, S. R. (1993). Production and germination of oospore of A. candida inoculum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15, 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu, J. Q., Rimmer, S. R., & Scarth, R. (1989). Histopathology of compatibility and incompatibility between oilseed rape and Albugo candida. Plant Pathology, 38, 176–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li, C. X., Sivasithamparam, K., Walton, G., Salisbury, P., Burton, W., Banga, S. S., Banga, S., Chattopadhyay, C., Kumar, A., Singh, R., Singh, D., Agnohotri, A., Liu, S. Y., Li, Y. C., Fu, T. D., Wang, Y. F., & Barbetti, M. J. (2007). Expression and relationships of resistance to white rust (Albugo candida) at cotyledonary, seedling, and flowering stages in Brassica juncea germplasm from Australia, China, and India. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 58, 259–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meena, P. D., & Sharma, P. (2012). Methodology for production and germination of oospores of Albugo candida infecting oilseed. Brassica Vegetos, 25, 115–119.Google Scholar
  34. Meena, S. S., Brar, K. S., Chauhan, J. S., Meena, P. D., Sandhu, P. S., Awasthi, R. P., Rathi, A. S., Kumar, Ashok, Gupta, J. C., & Kolte, S. J. (2011). GGE Biplot analysis of Brassica genotypes for white rust disease severity under aided epiphytotic conditions in India (pp. 1201–1204). Prague: Proceedings of 13th International Rapeseed Congress.Google Scholar
  35. Mayee, C. D., & Datar, V. V. (1986). Host range and disease assessment scales. Parbhani: Phytopathnometry (pp. 110–111) (Marathwada Agricultural University).Google Scholar
  36. Meena, P. D. (2007). Report on attachment training at Rothamsted Research, UK under DFID Oilseeds Brassica Improvement Programme, pp. 70.Google Scholar
  37. Murashige, T., & Skoog, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nath, M. D., Sharma, S. L., & Kant, U. (2000). Growth of Albugo candida infected mustard callus in culture. Mycopathologia, 152, 147–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. O’Brien, M. J., & Webb, R. E. (1958). Preservation of conidia of A.occidentalis and Peronospora effusa obligate parasites of spinach. Plant Disease Report, 42, 1312–1315.Google Scholar
  40. Perry, J. B., & Williams, P. H. (1984). Controlled droplet applicators for inoculation with plant pathogens. Plant Disease, 68, 107–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pedras, M. S. C., Zheng, Q. A., Gadagi, R. S., & Rimmer, S. R. (2008). Phytoalexins and polar metabolites from the oilseeds canola and rapeseed: Differential metabolic responses to the biotroph Albugo candida and to abiotic stress. Phytochemistry, 69, 894–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Petrie, G.A., & Verma, P.R. (1974). A simple method for germinating oospores of Albugo candida. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 54, 595-596.Google Scholar
  43. Pound, G. S., & Williams, P. H. (1963). Biologal races of Albugo candida. Phytopathology, 53, 1146–1149.Google Scholar
  44. Rimmer, S. R., Mathur, S., & Wu, C. R. (2000). Virulence of isolates of Albugo candida from western Canada to Brassica species. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22, 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Saharan, G. S., & Verma, P. R. (1992). White rusts: A review of economically important species. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC-MR315e: IV+65p).Google Scholar
  46. Saharan, G. S., Kaushik, C. D., & Kaushik, J. C. (1988). Sources of resistance and epidemiology of white rust of mustard. Indian Phytopathology, 41, 96–99.Google Scholar
  47. Stevens, F. L. (1901a). Gametogenesis and fertilization in Albugo. Contribution from the Hull Botanical Laboratory. XXIX. Botanical Gazette, 32, 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stevens, F. L. (1901b). Gametogenesis and fertilization in Albugo. Contribution from the Hull Botanical Laboratory. XXIX. Botanical Gazette, 32, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stevens, F. L. (1901c). Gametogenesis and fertilization in Albugo. Contribution from the Hull Botanical Laboratory. XXIX. Botanical Gazette, 32, 238–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singh, H. (1966). On the variability of the callus of Ipomoea infected with Albugo, grown under in vitro conditions. Phytomorphology, 16, 189–192.Google Scholar
  51. Singh, D. V., & Singh, J. (1983). A technique for inoculating A. candida on Lahi (Indian mustard). Indian Phytopathology, 36, 139–140.Google Scholar
  52. Siddiqui, M. O., Brown, J. F., & Allen, S. J. (1975). Growth stages of sunflower and intensity indices for white blister. Plant Disease Reporter, 59, 7–11.Google Scholar
  53. Stringam, G. R. (1971). Genetics of four hypocotyls mutants in Brassica campestris L. Journal of Heridity, 62, 248–250.Google Scholar
  54. Stone, J. R., Verma, P. R., Dueck, J., & Spurr, D.T. (1987). Control of Albugo candida race 7 in Brassica campestris cv. Torch by foliar, seed and soil applications of metalaxyl. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9, 137-145.Google Scholar
  55. Verma, P.R., & Petrie, G.A. (1975a). Effect of fungicides on germination of oospores of Albugo candida in vitro. Proceedings of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, 42, 29-30.Google Scholar
  56. Verma, P. R. (2012). White rust of crucifers: An overview of research progress. Journal of Oilseed Brassica, 3, 78–87.Google Scholar
  57. Verma, U., & Bhowmik, T. P. (1986). A simple method of inoculating white rust on rapeseed and mustard. International Journal of Tropical Plant Disease, 4, 41–43.Google Scholar
  58. Verma, U., & Bhowmik, T. P. (1988). Oospores of A. candida (Pers. ex. Lev.) Kuntze: Its germination and role as the primary source of inoculum for the white rust disease of rapeseed and mustard. International Journal of Tropical Plant Disease, 6, 265–269.Google Scholar
  59. Verma, P. R., & Petrie, G. A. (1975b). Germination of oospores of A. candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53, 836–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Verma, P. R., & Petrie, G. A. (1978). A detached-leaf culture technique for the study of white rust disease of Brassica species. Canadian Journal Plant Science, 58, 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Verma, P. R., & Petrie, G. A. (1979). Effect of fungicides on germination of Albugo candida oospores in vitro and on the foliar phase of the white rust disease. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 59, 53–59.Google Scholar
  62. Verma, P. R., & Petrie, G. A. (1980). Effect of seed infestation and flower bud inoculation on systemic infection of turnip rape by A. candida. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60, 267–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Verma, P. R., Harding, H., Petrie, G. A., & Williams, P. H. (1975). Infection and temporal development of mycelium of Albugo candida in cotyledons of four Brassica spp. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53, 1016–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Verma, P. R., Spurr, D. T., & Petrie, G. A. (1983). Influence of age, and time of detachment on development of white rust in detached Brassica campestris leaves at different temperatures. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5, 154–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Verma, P. R., Saharan, G. S., Bartaria, A. M., & Shivpuri, A. (1999). Biological races of Albugo candida on Brassica juncea and B. rapa var. Toria in India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 29, 75–82.Google Scholar
  66. Vyalykh, A. K., & Lanetskii, V. P. (1974). Luminescent microscopic method for determining viability of spores of the genus Albugo. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 8, 155-157 (Russian).Google Scholar
  67. Wager, H. (1896). Reproduction and fertilization in Cystopus candidus, Lev. Annals of Botany, 10, 89–91.Google Scholar
  68. Walker, J. C. (1957). Plant Pathology (pp. 214–219). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  69. White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., & Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal genes for phylogenetics. In M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, & T. J. White (Eds.), PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications (pp. 315–322). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  70. Williams, P. H. (1985). White rust (Albugo candida (Pers. ex. Hook.) Kuntze.). Crucifer genetics cooperative (CRGC) resource book. University of Wisconsin. (pp. 1–7).Google Scholar
  71. Williams, P. H., & Hill, C. B. (1986). Rapid cycling populations of Brassica. Science, 232, 1385–1389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zalewski, A. (1883). Zur Kenntniss der Gattung Cystopus. Botanisches Zentralblatt 15, 215–224.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Govind Singh Saharan
    • 1
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
    • 2
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
    • 3
  • Arvind Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.Agriculture and Agi-Food Canada Saskatoon Research StationSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Crop Protection UnitDirectorate of Rapeseed – Mustard Research (ICAR)BharatpurIndia
  4. 4.Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan – IIIndian Council of Agricultural ResearchNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations