• Govind Singh Saharan
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
  • Arvind Kumar


White rust (WR; white coloured pustules), white blister or white blister rust (release white powder or form galls) and stagheads (malformation of inflorescence) are the common names of the disease caused by Albugo spp. on more than 400 species of plants worldwide. It is known to cause infection on plants of genera belonging to families of Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Allionaceae, Amaranthaceae, Ambrosiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae , Capparidaceae, Carduaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cichoraceae, Cleomaceae, Compositae, Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Cruciferae, Fabaceae, Fumariaceae, Gentianaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Orchidaceae, Papaveraceae, Peperomiaceae, Portulacaceae, Resedaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae (Wilson, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 34:61–84, 1907; Biga, Sydowia 9:339–358, 1955; Vasudeva, The fungi of India, p. 13, 1960; Kenneth, The Journal of Japanese Botany 17:119–121, 1968; Jorstad, Nytt. Magasin for Botanildc 11:47–82, 1964; Saharan and Verma, White rusts: A review of economically important species, 1992; Dick, Advances in downy mildew research, pp. 225–265, 2002; Choi and Priest, Mycotaxon 53:261–272, 1995).


Amplify Fragment Length Polymorphism Downy Mildew Host Resistance Brassica Juncea Form Gall 


  1. Adhikari, T. B., Liu, J. Q., Mathur, S., Wu, C. X., & Rimmer, S. R. (2003). Genetic and molecular analyses in crosses of race 2 and race 7 of A. candida. Phytopathology, 93, 959–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldesuquy, H. S., & Baka, Z. A. M. (1992). Physiological and biochemical changes in host leaf tissues associated with the growth of two biotrophic fungi growing in Egypt. Phyton (Horn, Austria), 32, 129–142.Google Scholar
  3. Baka, Z. A. M. (2008). Occurrence and ultrastructure of Albugo candida on a new host, Arabis alpina in Saudi Arabia. Micron (Oxford, England: 1993), 39, 1138–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, S. D. (1955). The genus Albugo in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 82, 987–993.Google Scholar
  5. Bansal, V. K., Tewari, J. P., Stringam, G. R., & Thiagarajah, M. R. (2005). Histological and inheritance studies of partial resistance in the B. napus–A. candida host–pathogen interaction. Plant Breeding, 124, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berlin, J. D., & Bowen, C. C. (1964a). Centrioles in fungus. Albugo candida. American Journal of Botany, 51, 650–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berlin, J. D., & Bowen, C. C. (1964b). The host-parasite interface of Albugo candida on Raphanus sativus. American Journal of Botany, 51, 445–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biga, M. L. B. (1955). Review of the species of the genus Albugo based on the morphology of the conidia. Sydowia, 9, 339–358 (Italian).Google Scholar
  9. Borhan, M. H., Brose, E., Beynon, J. L., & Holub, E. B. (2001). White rust (A. candida) resistance loci on three Arabidopsis Chromosomes are closely linked to downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) resistance loci. Molecular Plant Pathology, 2, 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borhan, M. H., Holub, E. B., Beynon, J. L., Rozwadowski, K., & Rimmer, S. R. (2004). The Arabidopsis TIR-NB-LRR Gene RAC1 confers resistance to Albugo candida (white rust) and is dependent on EDS1 but not PAD4. Molecular Plant Microbe Intractions, 17, 711–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borhan, M. H., Gunn, N., Cooper, A., Gulden, S., Tor, M., Rimmer, S. R., & Holub, E. B. (2008). WRR4 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR protein that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to four physiological races of Albugo candida. Molecular Plant Microbe Intractions, 21, 757–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burdyukova, L. I. (1980). Albuginacea fungi. Taxonomy, morphology, biology, and specialization. Ukrainskyi Botanichnyi Zhumal, 37, 65–74. (Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Butler, E. J., & Bisby, G. R. (1934). The fungi of India (Science Manager No. 1). New Delhi: I.C.A.R.Google Scholar
  14. Chattopadhyay, C., Agrawal, R., Kumar, A., Meena, R. L., Faujdar, K., Chakravarthy, N. V. K., Kumar, A., Goyal, P., Meena, P. D., & Shekhar, C. (2011). Epidemiology and development of forecasting models for white rust of B. juncea in India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 44, 751–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheng, B. F., Seguin-Swartz, G., Somers, D. J., & Rakow, G. F. W. (1999). Meiotic studies on Indian mustard (B. juncea) germplasm possessing the fatty acid composition and white rust resistance of B. napus. Cruciferae Newsletter, 21, 45–46.Google Scholar
  16. Cheung, W. Y., Gugel, R. K., & Landry, B. S. (1998). Identification of RFLP markers linked to the white rust resistance gene (Acr) in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.]. Genome, 41, 626–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choi, D., & Priest, M. J. (1995). A key to the genus Albugo. Mycotaxon, 53, 261–272.Google Scholar
  18. Choi, Y. J., Hong, S. B., & Shin, H. D. (2006). Genetic diversity within the A. candida complex (Peronosporales, Oomycota) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA and COX2 mtDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 400–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choi, Y. J., Shin, H. D., Hong, S. B., & Thines, M. (2007). Morphological and molecular discrimination among A. candida materials infecting Capsella bursa-pastoris world-wide. Fungal Diversity, 27, 11–34.Google Scholar
  20. Choi, Y. J., Shin, H. D., Ploch, S., & Thines, M. (2008). Evidence for uncharted biodiversity in the A. candida complex, with the description of a new species. Mycological Research, 112, 1327–1334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Choi, Y. J., Shin, H. D., Hong, S. B., & Thines, M. (2009). The host range of Albugo candida extends from Brassicaceae through Cleomaceae to Capparaceae. Mycological Progress, 8, 329–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi, Y. J., Park, M. J., Park, J. H., & Shin, H. D. (2011a). White blister rust caused by A. candida on oilseed rape in Korea. Plant Pathology Journal, 27, 192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Choi, Y. J., Shin, H. D., Ploch, S., & Thines, M. (2011b). Three new phylogenetic lineages are the closest relatives of the widespread species Albugo candida. Fungal Biology, 115, 598–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choi, Y. J., Thines, M., & Shin, H. D. (2011c). A new perspective on the evolution of white blister rust: Albugo s.str. (Albugonales; Oomycota) is not restricted to Brassicales but also present on Fabales. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 11, 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chou, H. M., Bundock, N., Rolfe, S. A., & Scholes, J. D. (2000). Infection of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves with Albugo candida (white blister rust) causes a reprogramming of host metabolism. Molecular Plant Pathology, 1, 99–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coffey, M. D. (1975). Ultrastructural features of the haustorial apparatus of the white blister fungus A. candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53, 1285–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coffey, M. D. (1983). Cytochemical specialization at the haustorial interface of a biotrophic fungal parasite Albugo candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61, 2004–2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davison, E. M. (1968). Cytochemistry and ultrastructure of hyphae and haustoria of P. parasitica (Pers. ex Fr.) Fr. Annals of Botany (Lond.), 32, 613–621.Google Scholar
  29. Dick, M. W. (2002). Binomials in the Peronosporales, Sclerosporales and Pythiales. In P. T. N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi, & A. Lebeda (Eds.), Advances in downy mildew research (Vol. 1., pp. 225–265). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fan, Z., Rimmer, S. R., & Stefansson, B. R. (1983). Inheritance of resistance to Albugo candida in rape (Brassica napus L.). Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 25, 420–424.Google Scholar
  31. Ferreira, M. E., Williams, P. H., & Osborn, T. C. (1994). RFLP mapping of Brassica napus using doubled haploid lines. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 89, 615–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gmelin, J. F. (1792). Systema Naturae (Vol. 2). Leipzig: G. E. Beer.Google Scholar
  33. Hughes, S. J. (1971). Annel’whores. In Taxonomy of fungi Imperfecti. University of Toronto Press, 132–139.Google Scholar
  34. Jorstad, I. (1964). The Phycomycetous genera Albugo, Bremia, Plasmopara and Pseudo-peronospora in Norway, with an appendix containing unpublished find of Peronospora. Nytt. Magasin for Botanildc, 11, 47–82.Google Scholar
  35. Kaur, D., Bhandari, N. N., & Mukerji, K. G. (1984). A histochemical study of cytoplasmic changes during wall layer formation in the oospore of A. candida. Journal of Phytopathology, 109, 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaur, P., Jost, R., Sivasithamparam, K., & Barbetti, M. J. (2011). Proteome analysis of the A. candida–B. juncea pathosystem reveals that the timing of the expression of defence-related genes is a crucial determinant of pathogenesis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 1285–1298.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaur, P., Sivasithamparam, K. and Barbetti, M. J. 2011a. Host range and phylogenetic relationships of Albugo candida from cruciferous hosts in Western Australia, with special reference to Brassica juncea. Plant Disease, 95, 712-718.Google Scholar
  38. Kenneth, R. (1968). Observations on a rare fungus, A. mauginii (Parisi) cit. and Biga, causing “white rust” of legumes. The Journal of Japanese Botany, 17, 119–121.Google Scholar
  39. Khan, S. R. (1976). Ultrastructural changes in maturing sporangia of Albugo candida. Annals of Botany, 40, 1285-1292.Google Scholar
  40. Khan, S. R. (1977). Light and electron microscopic observations of sporangium formation in Albugo candida. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55, 730–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kole, C., Teutonico, R., Mengistu, A., Williams, P. H., & Osborn, T. C. (1996). Molecular mapping of a locus controlling resistance to Albugo candida in Brassica rapa. Phytopathology, 86, 367–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kole, C., Williams, P. H., Rimmer, S. R., & Osborn, T. C. (2002). Linkage mapping of genes controlling resistance to white rust (A. candida) in B. rapa (syn. campestris) and comparative mapping to B. napus and A. thaliana. Genome, 45, 22–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu, J. Q., Parks, P., & Rimmer, S. R. (1996). Development of monogenic lines for resistance to Albugo candida from a Canadian Brassica napus cultivar. Phytopathology, 86, 1000–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Massand, P. P., Yadava, S. K., Sharma, P., Kaur, A., Kumar, A., Arumugam, N., Sodhi, Y. S., Mukhopadhyay, A., Gupta, V., Pradhan, A. K., & Pental, D. (2010). Molecular mapping reveals two independent loci conferring resistance to Albugo candida in the east European germplasm of oilseed mustard Brassica juncea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 121, 137–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meena, P. D., Chattopadhyay, C., Singh, B., Gupta A., & Singh, F. (2002a). Effect of stage and number of irrigation on Indian mustard white rust disease severity. Indian Phytopathology, 55, 364.Google Scholar
  46. Meena, P. D., Chattopadhyay, C., Singh, F., Singh, B., & Gupta, A. (2002b). Yield loss in Indian mustard due to white rust and effect of some cultural practices on alternaria blight and white rust severity. Brassica, 4, 18–24.Google Scholar
  47. Mishra, K. K., Kolte, S. J., Nashaat, N. I., & Awasthi, R. P. (2009). Pathological and biochemical changes in Brassica juncea (mustard) infected with Albugo candida (white rust). Plant Pathology, 58, 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Misra, A., & Padhi, B. (1981). Impact of brown rust and white rust on the RNA content of their host tissues. In K. S. Bilgrami, R. S. Misra, & P. C. Misra (Eds.), Advancing frontiers of mycology and plant pathology (pp. 175–182)Google Scholar
  49. Mukerji, K. G., Upadhyay, R. K., Saharan, G. S., Sokhi, S. S., & Khangura, R. K. (1999). Diseases of Rapeseed-Mustard and their integrated management. In IPM system in agriculture,Rajeev, K., Upadhyay, K. G., Mukerji, R. L., & Rakak, R. L. (Eds). Aditya Books, India pp 91–135.Google Scholar
  50. Pedras, M. S. C., & Ahiahonu, P. W. K. (2005). Metabolism and detoxification of phytoalexins and analogs by phytopathogenic fungi. Phytochemistry, 66, 391–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pedras, M. S. C., Zheng, Q. A., & Gadagi, R.S. (2007a). The first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, rapalexins A and B, are cruciferous phytoalexins. Chemical Communications, 4, 368–370.Google Scholar
  52. Pedras, M. S. C., Zheng, Q. A., & Sarma-Mamillapalle, V. K. (2007b). The phytoalexins from Brassicaceae: Structure, biological activity, synthesis and biosynthesis. Natural Product Communications, 2, 319–330.Google Scholar
  53. Pedras, M. S. C., Zheng, Q. A., Gadagi, R. S., & Rimmer, S. R. (2008). Phytoalexins and polar metabolites from the oilseeds canola and rapeseed: Differential metabolic responses to the biotroph Albugo candida and to abiotic stress. Phytochemistry, 69, 894–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Persoon, C. H. 1796. Observationes mycologicae, 1. Leipzig: Wolf.Google Scholar
  55. Persoon, C. H. (1797). Tentamen dispositionis methodicae Fungorum. Leipzig: WolfGoogle Scholar
  56. Pound, G. S., & Williams, P. H. (1963). Biologal races of Albugo candida. Phytopathology, 53, 1146–1149.Google Scholar
  57. Prabhu, K. V., Somers, D. J., Rakow, G., & Gugel, R. K. (1998). Molecular markers linked to white rust resistance in mustard Brassica juncea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97, 865–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pruthi, V., Chawla, H. K. L., & Saharan, G. S. (2001). Albugo candida induced changes in phenolics and glucosinolates in leaves of resistant and susceptible cultivars of Brassica juncea. Cruciferae Newsletter, 23, 61–62.Google Scholar
  59. Rehmany, A. P., Lynn, J. R., Tor, M., Holub, E. B., & Beynon, J. L. (2000). A comparison of Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) isolates from Arabidopsis thaliana and Brasscia oleracea using amplified fragment length polymorphism and internal transcribed spacer 1 sequence analyses. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 30, 95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Riethmuller, A., Voglmayr, H., Goker, M., Weis, M., & Oberwinkler, F. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships of the downy mildews (Peronosporales) and related groups based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia, 94, 834–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saharan, G. S. (1992a). Disease resistance. In K. S. Labana, S. S. Banga, & S. K. Banga, (Eds.), Breeding oilseed Brassicas (Vol. 12., pp. 181–205). New Delhi: Narosa Publ. House.Google Scholar
  62. Saharan, G. S. (1992b). Management of rapeseed and mustard diseases. In D. Kumar & M. Rai (Eds.), Advances in oilseeds research (pp. 152–188). Jodhpur: Sci. Pub.Google Scholar
  63. Saharan, G. S. (2010). Analysis of genetic diversity in Albugo-crucifer system. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 40, 1–13.Google Scholar
  64. Saharan, G. S., & Krishnia, S. K. (2001). Multiple disease resistance in rapeseed and mustard. In S. Nagarajan & D. P. Singh (Eds.), Role of resistance in intensive agriculture (pp. 98–108). New Delhi: Kalyani Pub.Google Scholar
  65. Saharan, G. S., & Lakra, B. S. (1988). Correlation of leaf and staghead infection intensities of white rust with yield components of mustard. Indian, Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 18, 81 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  66. Saharan, G. S., & Mehta, N. (2002). Fungal diseases of rapeseed-mustard. In V. K. Gupta & Y. S. Paul (Eds.), Diseases of field crops (pp. 193–228). New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  67. Saharan, G. S., & Verma, P. R. (1992). White rusts: A review of economically important species. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. (IDRC- MR315e: IV+65 p).Google Scholar
  68. Saharan, G. S., Mehta, N., & Sangwan, M. S. (2005). Development of disease resistance in rapeseed-mustard. In G. S. Saharan, N. Mehta, & M. S. Sangwan (Eds.), Diseases of oilseed crops (pp. 561–617). New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.Google Scholar
  69. Savulescu, O. (1946). A study on the European species of the genus Cystopus Lev. With special reference to the species found in Rumania. Thesis 213. University of Bucarest, Rumania. (Abstract in Review of Applied Mycology, 27, 542, 1948).Google Scholar
  70. Savulescu, O. (1960). Fungous disease (mildew and white rust) of the cauliflower and their control. Comunicari de Botanica Societatea de Stiinte Naturale si Geografie din RPR 1957–59. 263–267 (Romania).Google Scholar
  71. Singh, H. V. (2000). Biochemical basis of resistance in Brassica species against downy mildew and white rust of mustard. Plant Disease Research, 15, 75–77.Google Scholar
  72. Singh, U. S., Doughty, K. J., Nashaat, N. I., Bennett, R. N., & Kolte, S. J. (1999). Induction of systemic resistance to Albugo candida in Brassica juncea by pre- or co-inoculation with an incompatible isolate. Phytopathology, 89, 1226–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Somers, D. J., Rakow, G., & Rimmer, S. R. (2002). Brassica napus DNA markers linked to white rust resistance in Brassica juncea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104, 1121–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spring, O., Haas, K., Lamla, I., Thurnhofer, S., & Vetter, W. (2005). The composition and taxonomic significance of fatty acid patterns in three white rust species: Albugo amaranthi, A. candida and A. tragopogonis (Peronosporales, Albuginaceae). Mycological Progress, 4, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tewari, J. P., & Skoropad, W. P. (1977). Ultrastructure of oospore development in Albugo candida on rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55, 2348–2357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tewari, J. P., Skoropad, W. P., & Malhotra, S. K. (1980). Multi-lamellar surface layer of the cell wall of Albugo candida and Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Journal of Bacteriology, 142, 689–693.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Thines, A., & Spring, O. (2005). A revision of Albugo (Chromista, Peronosporomycetes). Mycotaxon, 92, 443–458.Google Scholar
  78. Thines, M., & Voglmayr, H. (2009). An introduction to the white Blister rusts (Albuginales). In Kurt Lamour and Sophien Kamoun (Eds) Oomycete genetics and genomics: diversity, interactions and research tools, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Chapter 4, pp. 77-92.Google Scholar
  79. Thines, M., Goker, M., Telle, S., Ryley, M., Mathur, K., Narayana, Y. D., Spring, O., & Thakur, R. P. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships of graminicolous downy mildews based on cox2 sequence data. Mycological Research, 112, 345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thines, M., Choi, Y. J., Kemen, E., Ploch, S., Holub, E. B., Shin, H. D., & Jones, J. D. G. (2009). A new species of Albugo parasitic to Arabidopsis thaliana reveals new evolutionary patterns in white blister rusts (Albuginaceae). Persoonia, 22, 123–128.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Togashi, K., & Shibasaki, Y. (1934). Biometrical and biological studies of A. candida (Pers.) O. Kuntze in connection with its specialization. Bulletin Imperial College of Agriculture and Forestry (Morioka, Japan), 18, 88.Google Scholar
  82. Togashi, K., Shibasaki, Y., & Kwanno, Y. (1930). Morphological studies of Albugo candida, the causal fungus of the white rust of cruciferous plants. Agriculture & Horticulture, 7, 859–882.Google Scholar
  83. Togashi, K., Shibasaki, Y., & Sugana, Y. (1931). Morphological studies of white rust fungi in cruciferous plants. The Journal of Japanese Botany, 5, 82–83.Google Scholar
  84. Varshney, A., Mohapatra, T., & Sharma, R. P. (2004). Development and validation of CAPS and AFLP markers for white rust resistance gene in Brassica juncea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109, 153–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vasudeva, R. S. (1960). The fungi of India (p. 13). New Delhi: I.C.A.R.Google Scholar
  86. Voglmayr, H., & Riethmüller, A. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships of Albugo species (white blister rusts) based on LSU rDNA sequence and oospore data. Mycological Research, 110, 75–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wakefield, E. M. (1927). The genus Cystopus in South Africa. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 2, 242–246.Google Scholar
  88. Walker, J., & Priest, M. J. (2007). A new species of Albugo on Pterostylis (Orchidaceae) from Australia: Confi rmation of the genus Albugo on a monocotyledonous host. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36, 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Waterhouse, G. M. (1975). Species of Albugo on Aizoaceae. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 65, 504–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wilson, G. W. (1907). Studies in North American Peronasporales-I. The genus Albugo. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 34, 61–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Govind Singh Saharan
    • 1
  • Prithwi Raj Verma
    • 2
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
    • 3
  • Arvind Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.Agriculture and Agi-Food Canada Saskatoon Research StationSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Crop Protection UnitDirectorate of Rapeseed – Mustard Research (ICAR)BharatpurIndia
  4. 4.Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan – IIIndian Council of Agricultural ResearchNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations