Review of Literature



Gottlieb Haberlandt (Math Naturwiss 111:69–92 1902), a German plant physiologist, for the first time initiated the work on tissue culture. His work arose as a research tool and attempts were made to culture the isolated, fully differentiated cells in nutrient medium in vitro as early as 1898. The theoretical basis of tissue culture lies in the cell theory given by Schleiden and Schwann (1838–1839). Practically, this technique stands on the concept of “totipotency,” i.e., each cell has the ability to regenerate into a new plant. The field finds a wide range of applications starting from mass clonal propagation to plant improvement, molecular biology, bio-processing as well as a basic research tool. It has advanced the production in forestry and agriculture to many folds. There are a number of reviews published on tissue culture of woody and tree species which provide the wide-ranging micropropagation reports of various plant species. In this way, this chapter highlights the current review in tree tissue culture in vitro and micropropagation of other valuable plants, their significance, and the wide scope existing for investigations on mass multiplication and conservation of these plants.


Somatic Embryo Shoot Regeneration Adventitious Shoot Multiple Shoot Somaclonal Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbas H, Qaiser M, Naqvi B (2010) Rapid in vitro multiplication of Acacia nilotica subsp. hemispherica, a critically endangered endemic taxon. Pak J Bot 42:4087–4093Google Scholar
  2. Adams AN (1972) An improved medium for strawberry meristem culture. J Hortic Sci 47:263–264Google Scholar
  3. Ahee J, Duhoux E (1994) Root culturing of Faidherbia = Acacia albida as a source of explants for shoot regeneration. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 36:219–225Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad N, Anis M (2011) An efficient in vitro process of recurrent production of cloned plants of Vitex negundo L. Eur J Fores Res 130:135–144Google Scholar
  5. Ahuja MR (1993) Micropropagation a la carte In: Ahuja MR (ed) Micropropagation of woody plants, forestry series. Kluwer Academic, Netherlands 41, p 3–9Google Scholar
  6. Ajithkumar D, Seeni S (1998) Rapid clonal multiplication through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., a medicinal tree. Plant Cell Rep. 17:422–426.Google Scholar
  7. Akbas FA, Isikalan C, Namli S, Basaran D (2007) Micropropagation of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa). Int J Agri Biol 9:389–493Google Scholar
  8. Akin-Idowu PE, Ibitoye DO, Ademoyegun OT (2009) Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops. Afri J Biotechnol 8:3782–3788Google Scholar
  9. Ali MB, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2005) Effects of light intensities on antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content during short-term acclimatization on micropropagated Phalaenopsis plantlet. Environ Exp Bot 54:109–120Google Scholar
  10. Amancio S, Rebordao JP, Chaves MM (1999) Improvement of acclimatization of micropropagated grapevine: Photosynthetic competence and carbon allocation. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 58:31–37Google Scholar
  11. Amiard V, Mueh KE, Demmig-Adams B, Ebbert V, Turgeon R, Adams WW III (2005) Anatomical and photosynthetic acclimation to the light environment in species with differing mechanisms of phloem loading. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:12968–12973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ammar W, Nouairi I, Zarrouk M, Ghorbel M, Jemal F (2008) Antioxidative response to cadmium in roots and leaves of tomato plants. Biol Plant 52:727–731Google Scholar
  13. Amo-Marco JB, Ibanez MR (1998) Micropropagation of Limonium cavanillesii Erben., a threatened statice, from inflorescence stems. Plant Growth Regul 24:49–54Google Scholar
  14. Anis M, Ahmad N, Siddique I, Varshney A, Naz R, Perveen S, Khan Md I, Ahmed Md R, Husain MK, Khan PR, Aref IM (2012) Biotechnological approaches for the conservation of some forest tree species. In: Jenkins JA (ed) Forest decline: causes and impacts. Nova Publishers, Inc., p 1–39Google Scholar
  15. Anis M, Varshney A, Siddique I (2010) In vitro clonal propagation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Agrofores Syst 78:151–158Google Scholar
  16. Antonietta G, Ahmad H, Maurizio M, Alvare S (2007) Preliminary research on conversion of encapsulated somatic embryos of Citrus reticulata Blanco. cv. Mandarino Tardivo di Ciaculli. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 88:117–120Google Scholar
  17. Anuradha M, Pullaih T (1999) In vitro seed culture and induction of enhanced axillary branching in Pterocarpus santalinus and a method for rapid multiplication. Phytomorph 49:157–163Google Scholar
  18. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:206–216Google Scholar
  19. Ara H, Jaiswal U, Jaiswal VS (2000) Synthetic seed: prospects and limitations. Curr Sci 12:1438–1444Google Scholar
  20. Arora K, Sharma M, Srivastava J, Ranade SA, Sharma AK (2010) In vitro cloning of Azadirachta indica from root explants. Biol Plant 55:164–168Google Scholar
  21. Asada K (2000) The water-water cycle as alternative photon and electron sinks. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1419–1431Google Scholar
  22. Ashwath CR, Choudhary ML (2002) Rapid plant regeneration from Gerbera jamesonii Bolus callus cultures. Acta Bot Croat 61:125–134Google Scholar
  23. Asthana P, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U (2011) Micropropagation of Sapindus trifoliatus L. and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD analysis. Acta Physiol Plant 33:1821–1829Google Scholar
  24. Attree SM, Dunstan DI, Fowke LC (1989) Initiation of embryogenic callus and suspension cultures, and improved embryo regeneration from protoplasts, of white spruce (Picea glauca). Can J Bot 67:1790–1795Google Scholar
  25. Augustine AC, D’Souza L (1997) Micropropagation of an endangered forest tree Zanthoxylum rhetsa Roxb. Phytomorph 47:319–323Google Scholar
  26. Badji S, Mairone Y, Merlin G, Danthu P, Neville P, Collonna JP (1993) In vitro propagation of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal (L.) Willd): 1. Developing a rapid method for producing plants. Plant Cell Rep 12:629–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bajaj YPS, Furmanowa M, Olszowska O (1988) Biotechnology of micropropagation of medicinal and aromatic plants. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry medicinal plants Vol 4. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p 60–103Google Scholar
  28. Baker BS, Bhatia SK (1993) Factors effecting adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of quince (Cydonia oblonga). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 35:273–277Google Scholar
  29. Balaraju K, Agastian P, Ignacimuthu S, Park K (2011) A rapid in vitro propagation of red sanders (Pterocarpus santalinus L.) using shoot tip explants. Acta Physiol Plant 33:2501–2510Google Scholar
  30. Ball EA (1946) Development in sterile culture of stem tips and subjacent regions of Tropaeolum majus L. and of Lupinus albus L. Am J Bot 33:301–318Google Scholar
  31. Ballester A, Janeiro LV, Vietez AM (1997) Cold storage of shoot cultures and alginate encapsulation of shoot tips of Camellia japonica L. and Camellia reticulata Lindley. Sci Hort 71:67–78Google Scholar
  32. Barciszewski J, Rattan SIS, Siboska G, Clark BFC (1999) Kinetin—45 years on. Plant Sci 148:37–45Google Scholar
  33. Barn KS, Wakhlu AK (1993) Somatic embryogenesis in plant regeneration from callus cultures of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. [J]). Plant Cell Rep 11:71–75Google Scholar
  34. Bashir MA, Rashid H, Anjum MA (2007) In vitro shoot initiation from nodal explants of jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis) strains. Biotechnol 6:165–174Google Scholar
  35. Batkova P, Pospisilova J, Synkova H (2008) Production of reactive oxygen species and development of antioxidative systems during in vitro growth and ex vitro transfer. Biol Plant 52:413–422Google Scholar
  36. Baviera JA, Garcia JL, Ibarra M (1989) Commercial in vitro micropropagation of pear cv. Conference. Acta Hortic 256:63–68Google Scholar
  37. Bellamine J, Penel C, Greppin H, Gaspar T (1998) Confirmation of the role of auxin and calcium in the late phases of adventitious root formation. Plant Growth Regul 26:191–194Google Scholar
  38. Bell RL, Reed BM (2002) In vitro tissue culture of pear: Advances in techniques for micropropagation and germplasm preservation. Acta. Hortic. 596: 412–418Google Scholar
  39. Bennett IJ, McComb JA, Tonkin CM, McDavid DAJ (1994) Alternating cytokinins in multiplication media stimulates in vitro shoot growth and rooting of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Ann Bot 74:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Benson EE (2000) In vitro recalcitrance: an introduction. Special symposium: in vitro plant recalcitrance. Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 36:141–148Google Scholar
  41. Bergmann BA, Moon HK (1997) In vitro adventitious shoot production in Paulownia. Plant Cell Rep. 16:315–319Google Scholar
  42. Bhat SR, Chitralekha P, Chandel KPS (1992) Regeneration of plants from long-term root culture of lime, Citrus aurantifolia (Chirstm.) Swing. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 29:19–25Google Scholar
  43. Bhatia P, Ashwath N (2005) Effect of medium pH on shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary explants of tomato. Biotechnol 4:7–10Google Scholar
  44. Bhatt ID, Dhar U (2004) Factors controlling micropropagation of Myrica esculenta buch.-Ham. ex D. Don.: a high value wild edible of Kumaun Himalaya. Afri J Biotechnol 3:534–540Google Scholar
  45. Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S (1997) Rapid multiplication of Jasminium officinale L. by in vitro culture of nodal explants. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 51:57–60Google Scholar
  46. Bhau BS, Wakhlu AK (2001) Effect of genotype, explant type and growth regulators on organogenesis in Morus alba. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 66:25–29Google Scholar
  47. Bhojwani SS (1980) In vitro propagation of garlic by shoot proliferation. Sci Hort 13:47–52Google Scholar
  48. Bhuyan AK, Pattnaik S, Chand PK (1997) Micropropagation of curry leaf tree [Murraya koenigii (L.) Spring.] by axillary proliferation using intact seedlings. Plant Cell Rep 16:779–782Google Scholar
  49. Binh LT, Muoi LT, Oanh HTK, Thang RD, Phong DT (1990) Rapid propagation of Agave by in vitro tissue culture. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 23:67–70Google Scholar
  50. Blinstrubiene A, Sliesaravicius A, Burbulis N (2004) Factors affecting morphogenesis in tissue culture of linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Acta Universitatis Latviensis Biol 676:149–152Google Scholar
  51. Boerjan W (2005) Biotechnology and the domestication of forest trees. Curr Opi Biotechnol 16:159–166Google Scholar
  52. Borkowska B (2001) Morphological and physiological characteristics of micropropagated strawberry plants rooted in vitro or ex vitro. Sci Hortic 89:195–206Google Scholar
  53. Borthakur M, Dutta K, Nath SC, Singh RS (2000) Micropropagation of Eclipta alba and Eupatorium adenophorum using a single step nodal cutting technique. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 62:239–242Google Scholar
  54. Borthakur M, Hazarika J, Singh RS (1999) A protocol for micropropagation of Alpinia galanga. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 55:231–233Google Scholar
  55. Bosela MJ, Michler CH (2008) Media effects on black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) shoot culture growth in vitro: evaluation of multiple nutrient formulations and cytokinin types. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 44:316–329Google Scholar
  56. Brito G, Costa A, Fonseca H, Santos C (2003) Response of Olea europaea ssp. maderensis in vitro shoots to osmotic stress. Sci Hortic 97:411–417Google Scholar
  57. Butcher D, Street HE (1964) Excised root culture. Biol Rev 30:513Google Scholar
  58. Butenko RG, Lipsky AKH, Chernyak ND, Arya HC (1984) Changes in culture medium pH by cell suspension cultures of Dioscorea deltoides. Plant Sci Lett 35:207–212Google Scholar
  59. Campbell MM, Brunner AM, Jones HM, Strauss SH (2003) Forestry’s fertile crescent: the application of biotechnology to forest trees. Plant Biotechnol 1:141–154.Google Scholar
  60. Capellades M, Lemeur L, Debergh P (1991) Effects of sucrose on starch accumulation and rate of photosynthesis in Rosa cultured in vitro. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 25:21–26Google Scholar
  61. Carvalho LC, Goulao L, Oliveira C, Goncalves JC, Amancio S (2004) RAPD assessment for identification of clonal identity and genetic stability of in vitro propagated chestnut hybrids. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 77:23–27Google Scholar
  62. Ceasar SA, Maxwell SL, Prasad KB, Karthigan M, Ignacimuthu S (2010) Highly efficient shoot regeneration of Bacopa monnieri L. using a two-stage culture procedure and assessment of genetic integrity of micropropagated plants by RAPD. Acta Physiol Plant 32:443–452Google Scholar
  63. Centeno ML, Rodriguez A, Feito I, Fernandez B (1996) Relationship between endogenous auxin and cytokinin levels and morphogenic responses in Actinidia deliciosa tissue cultures. Plant Cell Rep 16:58–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Chan JT, Chang WC (2002) Effect of tissue culture conditions and explant characteristics on direct somatic embryogenesis in Oncidium ‘Grower Ramsay’. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 69:41–44Google Scholar
  65. Chand S, Pattnaik S, Chand PK (2002) Adventitious shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration from cotyledons of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., a timber yielding tree legume. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 68:203–209Google Scholar
  66. Chand S, Singh AK (2004) Plant regeneration from encapsulated nodal segments of Dalbergia sisso Roxb., a timber yielding leguminous tree species. J Plant Physiol 161:237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Chandrasekhar T, Hussain TM, Jayanand B (2005) In vitro micropropagation of Boswellia ovalifoliolata. Natl Cent Biotechnol Inf 60:505–507Google Scholar
  68. Chandrika M, Rai RV, Thoyajaksha (2010) ISSR marker based analysis of micropropagated plantlets of Nothapodytes foetida. Biol Plant 54:561–565Google Scholar
  69. Chandrika M, Thoyajaksha, Rai RV, Kini RK (2008) Assessment of genetic stability of in vitro grown Dictyospermum ovalifolium. Biol Plant 52:735–739Google Scholar
  70. Chattopadhyay S, Datta SK, Mahato SB (1995) Rapid micropropagation for Mucuna pruriens f. pruriens. L. Plant Cell Rep 15:271–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Chaturvedi HC, Mitra GC (1975) A shift in morphogenetic pattern in Citrus callus tissue during prolonged culture. Ann Bot 39:683–687Google Scholar
  72. Chaturvedi HC, Sharma M, Sharma AK, Jain M, Agha BQ, Gupta P (2004) In vitro germplasm preservation through regenerative excised root culture for conservation of phytodiversity. Indian J Biotechnol 3:305–315Google Scholar
  73. Chaudhary H, Sood N (2008) Purification and partial characterization of lectins from in vitro cultures of Ricinus communis. Plant Tiss Cult Biotechnol 18:89–102Google Scholar
  74. Cheng TY (1979) Micropropagation of clonal fruit tree rootstocks. Compact. Fruit Tree 12:127–137Google Scholar
  75. Chetia S, Handique PJ (2000) High frequency in vitro multiplication of Plumbago indica- A medicinal plant. Curr Sci 78:1187Google Scholar
  76. Chevreau E, Thibault B, Arnaud Y (1992) Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus communis L.). In: Bajaj YPS. (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 18. Springer, Berlin. p 224–261Google Scholar
  77. Clijsters H, Cuypers A, Vangronsveld J (1999) Physiological responses to heavy metals in higher plants: defence against oxidative stress. Z Naturforsch 54:730–734Google Scholar
  78. Cocking EC (1960) A method for the isolation of plant protoplasts and vacuoles. Nature 187:927–929Google Scholar
  79. Coenen C, Lomax TL (1997) Auxin-cytokinin interactions in higher plants: old problems and new tools. Trends Plant Sci 2:351–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Cohen D (1980) Application of micropropagation methods for blueberries and tamarillos. Comb. Proc. Int Plant Prop Soc 30:144–146Google Scholar
  81. Corredoira E, Ballester A, Vieitez AM (2008) Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 95:197–208Google Scholar
  82. Cortizo M, Cuesta C, Centeno ML, Rodriguez A, Fernandez B, Ordas R (2009) Benzyladenine metabolism and temporal competence of Pinus pinea cotyledons to form buds in vitro. J Plant Physiol 166:1069–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Cristina M, Dos Santos F, Esquibel MA, Dos Santos VP (1990) In vitro propagation of the alkaloid producing plant Datura insignis Barb. Rodr. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 21:57–61Google Scholar
  84. Cuypers A, Vangronsveld J, Clijsters H (2002) Peroxidases in roots and primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris copper and zinc phytotoxicity: a comparison. J Plant Physiol 159:869–876Google Scholar
  85. Dalal NV, Rai VR (2004) In vitro propagation of Oroxylum indicum Vent. a medicinally important forest tree. J For Res 9:61–65Google Scholar
  86. Das DK, Shiv Prakash N, Bhalla-Sarin N (1999) Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Plant Cell Rep 18:691–695Google Scholar
  87. Das S, Jha TB, Jha S (1996) In vitro propagation of cashew nut. Plant Cell Rep 15:615–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Davies PJ (2004) Regulatory factors in hormone action: Level, location and signal transduction. In: Davies PJ (ed) plant Hormones, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 16–35Google Scholar
  89. De Fossard RA, De Fossard H (1988) Micropropagation of some members of the Myrtaceace. Acta Hortic 227:346–351Google Scholar
  90. De Klerk GJ, Ter Brugge J, Marinova S (1997) Effectiveness of indole acetic acid, indolebutyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid during adventitious root formation in vitro in Malus ‘Jork 9’. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 49:39–44Google Scholar
  91. De Klerk GJ, Van Der Krieken W, De Jong JC (1999) The formation of adventitious roots: New concepts, new possibilities. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol- Plant 35:189–199Google Scholar
  92. Desjardins Y, Hdider C, De Riek J (1995) Carbon nutrition in vitro-regulation and manipulation of carbon assimilation in micropropagated systems. In: Aitken-Christie J, Kozai T, Smith MLA (eds) Automation and environmental control in plant tissue culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, p 441–471Google Scholar
  93. Detrez C, Ndiaye S, Dreyfus B (1994) In vitro regeneration of the tropical multipurpose leguminous tree Sesbania grandiflora from cotyledon explants. Plant Cell Rep 14:87–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Devi YS, Mukherjee BB, Gupta S (1994) Rapid cloning of elite teak (Tectona grandis L.) by in vitro multiple shoot production. Indian J Exp Biol 32:668–671Google Scholar
  95. Dias MC, Pinto G, Santos C (2011) Acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets induces an antioxidative burst: a case study with Ulmus minor Mill. Photosynthetica 49:259–266Google Scholar
  96. Distabanjong K, Geneve RL (1997) Multiple shoot formation from cotyledonary node segments of Eastern redbud. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 47:247–254Google Scholar
  97. Douglas DC, McNamara J (2000) Shoot regeneration from seedling explants of Acacia mangium Willd. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 36:412–415Google Scholar
  98. Driver JA, Kuniyuki AH (1984) In vitro propagation of Paradox walnut rootstock. HortSci 19:507–509Google Scholar
  99. Duhoky MMS, Rasheed KA (2010) Effect of different concentrations of Kinetin and NAA on micropropagation of Gardenia jasminoides. J Zankoy Sulaimani 13:103–120Google Scholar
  100. Durkovic J (2008) Micropropagation of mature Cornus mas ‘Macrocarpa.’ Trees 22:597–602Google Scholar
  101. Durkovic J, Lux A (2010) Micropropagation with a novel pattern of adventitious rooting in American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). Trees 24:491–497Google Scholar
  102. Durkovic J, Misalova A (2008) Micropropagation of temperate noble hardwoods: An overview. Funct Plant Sci Biotechnol 2:1–19Google Scholar
  103. Economou AS, Spanoudaki MJ (1985) In vitro propagation of Gardenia. HortSci 20:213Google Scholar
  104. Edson JL, Wenney DL, Leege-Bruven A (1994) Micropropagation of Pacific Dogwood. HortSci 29:1355–1356Google Scholar
  105. Elangomathvan R, Prakash S, Kathiravan K, Seshadari S, Igancimuthu S (2003) High frequency in vitro propagation of kidney tea plant. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 72:83–86Google Scholar
  106. Elkonin LA, Pakhomova NV (2000) Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on induction embryogenic callus of sorghum. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 61:115–123Google Scholar
  107. Engelmann F (1997) In vitro conservation methods. In: Ford-Lloyd BV, Newbury JH, Callow JA (eds) Biotechnology and plant genetic resources: conservation and Use. CABI, Wallingford, p 119–162Google Scholar
  108. Epstein E, Bloom AJ (2005) Mineral nutrition of plants: principles and perspectives. Sinauer Associates, 2nd edn. SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  109. Epstein E, Ludwig-Muller J (1993) Indole-3-butyric acid in plants: occurrence, synthesis, metabolism and transport. Physiol Plant 88:382–389Google Scholar
  110. Eswara JP, Stuchbury T, Allan EJ (1998) A standard procedure for the micropropagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Plant Cell Rep 17:215–219Google Scholar
  111. Faisal M, Ahmad N, Anis M (2006) In vitro plant regeneration from alginate-encapsulated microcuttings of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. World J Agri Sci 1:1–6Google Scholar
  112. Faisal M, Anis M (2003) Rapid mass propagation of Tylophora indica Merill. via leaf callus culture. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 75:125–129Google Scholar
  113. Faisal M, Anis M (2007) Regeneration of plants from alginate encapsulated shoots of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an endangered medicinal plant. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 82:351–354Google Scholar
  114. Faisal M, Anis M (2009) Changes in photosynthetic activity, pigment composition, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes during ex vitro establishment of micropropagated Rauvolfia tetraphylla plantlets. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 99:125–132Google Scholar
  115. Faisal M, Anis M (2010) Effect of light irradiations on photosynthetic machinery and antioxidative enzymes during ex vitro acclimatization of Tylophora indica plantlets. J Plant Interact 5:21–27Google Scholar
  116. Faisal M, Siddique I, Anis M (2006a) In vitro rapid regeneration of plantlets from nodal explants of Mucuna pruriens- a valuable medicinal plant. Ann Appl Biol 148:1–6Google Scholar
  117. Faisal M, Siddique I, Anis M (2006b) An efficient plant regeneration system for Mucuna pruriens L. (DC) using cotyledonary node explants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 42:59–64Google Scholar
  118. Famiani F, Ferradini N, Staffolani P, Standardi A (1994) Effect of leaf excision time, age, BA concentration and dark treatments on in vitro shoot regeneration of M26 apple rootstock. J Hort Sci 69:679–685Google Scholar
  119. Farhatullah AZ, Abbas SJ (2007) In vitro effects of gibberellic acid on morphogenesis of potato explants. Int J Agri Biol 9:181–182Google Scholar
  120. Ferreira FJ, Kieber JJ (2005) Cytokinin signalling. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:518–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Fiedler H (1936) Entwicklungs und reizphysiologische Untersuchungen an Kulturen isolierter Wurzelspitzen. Zeitschrift fur Botanik 30:385–436Google Scholar
  122. Frabetti M, Gutierrez-Pesce P, Mendoza-de Gyves E, Rugini E (2009) Micropropagation of Teucrium fructicans L., an ornamental and medicinal plant. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 45:129–134Google Scholar
  123. Gaba VP (2005) Plant growth regulators in plant tissue culture and development. In: Trigano RN;Gray DJ. (eds) Plant development and biotechnology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 87–99Google Scholar
  124. Gahan PB, George EF (2008) Adventitious regeneration. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk GJ (eds) Plant propagation by tissue culture, 3rd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, p 355–401Google Scholar
  125. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrients requirement of suspension culture of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Gaspar T, Kevers C, Hausman JF, Ripetto V (1994) Peroxidase activity and endogenous free auxin during adventitious root formation. In: Lumsden PJ, Nicholas JR and Davies WJ (eds.) Physiology, growth and Development of plants in culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, p 289–298Google Scholar
  127. Gautheret RJ (1934) Culture du tissues cambial. C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad Sci 198:2195–2196Google Scholar
  128. Gautheret RJ (1937) La culture des tissus vegetaux. Son etat actuel, comparaison avec la culture des tissus animaux. Hermann & Cie, ParisGoogle Scholar
  129. Gautheret RJ (1939) Sur la possibilite de realiser a culture indefinite des tissues de tubercules de carotte. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 208:118–120Google Scholar
  130. Gautheret RJ (1983) Plant tissue culture: a history. Bot mag Tokyo 96:393–410Google Scholar
  131. Gautheret RJ (1985) History of plant tissue and cell culture: A personal account. In: Vasil IK, ed. Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, p 1–59Google Scholar
  132. Gauthret RJ (1940) Nouvelles recherche sur le bouregeonnement du tissue cambial d’ Ulmus campestris cultive in vitro. C.R. Acad Sci 210:744–746Google Scholar
  133. Geiger-Huber M, Burlet E (1936) Ueber den hormonalen einflusz der a Indolylessigsaure auf das Wachstums isolierter Wurzeln in keimfreier Organkultur. Jahrbuch fur Wissenschaftliche Botanik 84:233–253Google Scholar
  134. George EF (1993) Plant propagation by tissue culture, part I: the technology. Exegetics, Edington. p 1–574Google Scholar
  135. George EF, Debergh PC (2008) Micropropagation: uses and methods. plant propagation by tissue culture 3rd edn, Vol.1. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk G-J (edn) The background. Published by Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  136. George EF, Sherrington PD (1984) In: Plant propagation by Tissue culture. Exegetics Ltd., London, p 39–71Google Scholar
  137. Georges D, Chemienx JC, Ochatt SD (1993) Plant regeneration from aged callus of woody ornamental species Lonicera japonica cv. Hell’s prolific. Plant Cell Rep 13:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Germana M, Micheli M, Chiancone B, Macaluso L, Standardi A (2011) Organogenesis and encapsulation of in vitro-derived propagules of Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinensis (L.); Poncirius trifoliata (L.). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 78:1–9Google Scholar
  139. Gharyal PK, Maheshwari SC (1990) Differentiation of explants from mature leguminous trees. Plant Cell Rep 8:550–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Giri CC, Shyankumar B, Anjaneyulu C (2004) Progress in tissue culture, genetic transformation and applications of biotechnology to trees: An Overview. Trees 18:115–135Google Scholar
  141. Girijashankar V (2011) Micropropagation of multipurpose medicinal tree, Acacia auriculiformis. J Med Plant Res 5:462–466Google Scholar
  142. Gitonga LN, Gichuki ST, Ngamau K, Muigai AWT, Kahangi EM, Wasilwa LA, Wepukhulu S, Njogu N (2010) Effect of explant type, source and genotype on in vitro shoot regeneration in Macadamia (Macadamia spp.) J Agri Biotechnol Sustain Dev 2:129–135Google Scholar
  143. Gokhale M, Bansal YK (2009) Direct in vitro regeneration of a medicinal tree Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. through tissue culture. Afri J Biotechnol 8:3777–3781Google Scholar
  144. Gonzalez-Benito ME, Perez C, Viviani AB (1997) Cryopreservation of nodal explants of an endangered plant species (Centaurium rigualii Esteve) using the encapsulation dehydration method. Biodiversity Conserv 6:583–590Google Scholar
  145. Gonzalez-Rodriguez JA, Ramirez-Garduza F, Manuel L, Robert-Aileen O’Connor-Sanchez, Pena-Ramirez YJ (2010) Adventitious shoot induction from adult tissues of the tropical timber tree yellow Ipé primavera (Tabebuia donnell-smithii rose [bignoniaceae]). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 46:411–421Google Scholar
  146. Goto S, Thakur RC, Ishii K (1998) Determination of genetic stability in long-term micropropagated shoots of Pinus thunbergii Parl. using RAPD markers. Plant Cell Rep 18:193–197Google Scholar
  147. Gratao PL, Polle A, Lea PJ, Azevedo RA (2005) Making the life of heavy metal stressed plants a little easier. Funct Plant Biol 32:481–494Google Scholar
  148. Grout BWW (1988) Photosynthesis of regenerated plantlets in vitro, and the stress of transplanting. Acta Hort 230:129–135Google Scholar
  149. Guan QZ, Guo YH, Sui XL, Li W, Zhang ZX (2008) Changes in photosynthetic capacity and oxidant enzymatic systems in micropropagated Zingiber officinale plantlets during their acclimation. Photosynthetica 46:193–201Google Scholar
  150. Gubis J, Lajchova Z, Frago J, Jurekova Z (2003) Effect of explant type on shoot regeneration in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in vitro. Czech J Plant Breed 39:9–14Google Scholar
  151. Guha S, Maheshwari SC (1966) Cell division and differentiation of embryos in the pollen grains of Datura in vitro. Nature 212:97–98Google Scholar
  152. Gupta S, Madal BB (2003) In vitro methods for PGR conservation: principles and prospects. In:Chaudhury R, Pandey R, Malik SK, Bhag Mal, editors, In vitro conservation and cryopreservation of tropical fruit species. New Delhi: IPGRI office for South Asia and NBPGR 71–80Google Scholar
  153. Gupta PK, Nadgir AI, Mascarenhas AF, Jaganathan V (1980) Tissue culture of forest trees—Clonal multiplication of Tectona grandis (teak) by tissue culture, Plant Sci Lett 17:259–268Google Scholar
  154. Gururaj HB, Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA (2007) Micropropagation of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F & Thomas—a multipurpose medicinal plant. Curr Sci 92:23–26Google Scholar
  155. Haagen-Smit AJ (1951) The history and nature of plant growth hormones. In: Skoog, F, ed. Plant growth substances. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 3–19Google Scholar
  156. Haberlandt G (1902) Kulturversuche mit isolierten Pflanzenzellen. Sitzungsber K Preuss Akad Wiss Wien. Math Naturwiss 111:69–92.Google Scholar
  157. Haissig BE (1974) Influence of auxins and auxin synergists on adventitious root primodium initiation and development. Bio Tech 5:52–59Google Scholar
  158. Hammatt N, Grant NJ (1998) Shoot regeneration from leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherry) and P. avium L. (wild cherry). Plant Cell Rep 17:526–530Google Scholar
  159. Haramaki C (1971) Tissue culture of Gloxinia. Comb. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 21:442–448Google Scholar
  160. Haramaki C, Murashige T (1972) In vitro culture of Gloxinia. Hort Sci 7:339Google Scholar
  161. Harbage JF, Stimart DP, Auer C (1998) pH affects 1 H-indole- 3-butyric acid uptake but not metabolism during the initiation phase of adventitious root induction in apple microcuttings. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:6–10Google Scholar
  162. Harisaranraj R, Suresh K, Saravanbabu S (2009) Rapid clonal propagation of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. Acad J Plant Sci 2:195–198Google Scholar
  163. Hausen A, Pal M (2003) Effect of serial bud grafting and etiolation on rejuvenation and rooting cuttings of mature trees of Tectona grandis Linn. f. Silvae Genet 52:84–88Google Scholar
  164. Hazarika BN (2003) Acclimatization of tissue cultured plants. Curr Sci 85:1705–1712Google Scholar
  165. Hazarika BN (2006) Morpho-physiological disorders in in vitro culture of plants. Sci Hortic 108:105–120Google Scholar
  166. Hazarika BN, Parthasarathy VA, Nagaraju V, Bhowmik G (2000) Sucrose induced biochemical changes in in vitro microshoots of Citrus species. Indian J Hortic 57:27–31Google Scholar
  167. Heller R (1953) Researches on the mineral nutrition of plant tissues. Ann Sci Nat Bot Biol Veg 11th Ser 14:1–223Google Scholar
  168. Heyl A, Schmulling T (2003) Cytokinin signal perception and transduction. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:480–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Hildebrandt AC, Riker AJ, Duggar BM (1946) The influence of the composition of the medium on growth in vitro of excised tobacco and sunflower tissue cultures. Am J Bot 33:591–597Google Scholar
  170. Hiregoudar LV, Kumar HGA, Murthy HN (2005) In vitro culture of Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle from hypocotyls and intermodal explants. Biol Plant 49:41–45Google Scholar
  171. Hisajima S (1982) Multiple shoot formation from almond seeds and an excised single shoot. Agric Biol Chem 46:1091–1093Google Scholar
  172. Hisajima S, Church L (1981) Multiple shoot formation from soybean embryo. Plant Physiol 67:28Google Scholar
  173. Hossain SN, Munshi MK, Islam MR, Hakim L, Hossain M (2003) In vitro propagation of Plum (Zyziphus jujuba Lam.). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 13:81–84Google Scholar
  174. Hossain SN, Rahman S, Joydhar A, Islam S, Hossain M (2001) In vitro propagation of Acacia catechu Willd. Plant Tiss Cult 11:25–29Google Scholar
  175. Howell SH, Lall S, Che P (2003) Cytokinins and shoot development. Trends Plant Sci 8:453–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Howell SH, Lall S, Che P (2003) Cytokinins and shoot development. Trends Plant Sci 8:453–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Huang FH, Jameel M, Al-Khayri, Gbur EE (1994) Micropropagation of Acacia mearnsii. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 30:70–74Google Scholar
  178. Huang WJ, Ning GG, Liu GF, Bao MZ (2009) Determination of genetic stability of long-term micropropagated plantlets of Platanus acerifolia using ISSR markers Biol Plant 53:159–163Google Scholar
  179. Huetteman CA, Preece JE (1993) Thidiazuron: a potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 33:105–119Google Scholar
  180. Husain MK, Anis M, Shahzad A (2007) In vitro propagation of Indian Kino (Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) using thidiazuron. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 43:59–64Google Scholar
  181. Husain MK, Anis M, Shahzad A (2010) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Trees 24:781–787Google Scholar
  182. Hussain TM, Chandrasekhar T, Gopal GR (2008) Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb., an endangered tree species from intact seedlings. Afri J Biotechnol 7:095–101Google Scholar
  183. Hussein S, Ibrahim R, Kiong ALP, Fadzillah NE and Daud SK (2005) Multiple shoots formation of an important medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Plant Biotechnol 22:349–351Google Scholar
  184. Hyndman SE, Hasegawa PM, Bressan DA (1982) The role of sucrose and nitrogen in adventitious root formation on cultured rose shoots. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 1:229–238Google Scholar
  185. Iapichino G, Airo M (2008) Micropropagation of Metrosideros excelsa. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 44:330–337Google Scholar
  186. Isabel N, Tremblay L, Michaud M, Tremblay FM, Bousquet J (1993) RAPDs as an aid to evaluate the genetic integrity of somatic embryogenesis-derived populations of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. Theor Appl Genet 86:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Islam R, Hossain M, Joarder OI, Karim MR (1993) Adventitious shoot formation on excised leaf explants of in vitro grown seedlings of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Hortic Sci 68:95–498Google Scholar
  188. Isutsa DK, Pritts MP, Mudge KW (1994) Rapid propagation of blueberry plants using ex vitro rooting and controlled acclimatization of micropropagules. Hort Sci 29:1124–1126.Google Scholar
  189. Jablonski JR, Skoog F (1954) Cell enlargement and cell division in excised tobacco pith tissue. Physiol Plant 7:16–24Google Scholar
  190. Jahan AA, Anis M (2009) In vitro rapid multiplication and propagation of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. through axillary bud culture. Acta Physiol Plant 31:133–138Google Scholar
  191. Jain N, Babbar SB (2000) Recurrent production of plants of black plum. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, a myrtaceous fruit tree, from in vitro cultured seedling explants. Plant Cell Rep 19:519–524Google Scholar
  192. Jakola L, Tolvanen A, Laine K, Hohtola A (2001) Effect of N6-isopentenyladenine concentration on growth initiation in vitro and rooting of berberry and lingonberry microshoots. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 66:73–77Google Scholar
  193. Jeong JH, Murthy HN, Paek KY (2001) High frequency adventitious shoot induction and plant regeneration from leaves of statice. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 65:123–128Google Scholar
  194. Jha S, Jha TB (1989) Micropropagation of Cephalis ipecacuanha Rich. Plant Cell Rep 8:437–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Jimenez A, Hernandez JA, Delrio LA, Sevilla F (1997) Evidence for the presence of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle in mitochondria and peroxisomes of pea leaves. Plant Physiol 114:275–284PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Jo EA, Tewari RK, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2009) In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of Alocasia amazonica plantlets. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 96:307–315Google Scholar
  197. Jones MPA, Yi Z, Murch SJ, Saxena PK (2007) Thidiazuron-induced regeneration of Echinacea purpurea L.: micropropagation in solid and liquid culture systems. Plant Cell Rep 26:13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Joshi P, Dhawan V (2007) Assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated Swerita chiraytia plantlets by ISSR marker assay. Biol Plant 51:22–26Google Scholar
  199. Kadlecek P, Ticha I, Capkova V, Schafer C (1998) Acclimatization of micropropagated tobacco plantlets. In: Garab G (ed) Photosynthesis: mechanisms and effects vol. V. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 3853–3856Google Scholar
  200. Kaneda Y, Tabei Y, Nishimura S, Harada K, Akihama T and Kitamura K (1997) Combination of thidiazuron and basal media with low salt concentrations increases the frequency of shoot organogenesis in soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Plant Cell Rep 17:8–12Google Scholar
  201. Kanthrajah AS, Rechard GD, Dodd WA (1992) roots as source of explants for successful micropropagation of Cacambola (Averrhoa carambola). Scientia Horti 51:169–177Google Scholar
  202. Karsai I, Bedo Z, Hayes PM (1994) Effect of induction medium pH and maltose concentration on in vitro androgenesis of hexaploid winter triticale and wheat. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 39:49–53Google Scholar
  203. Kartha KK (1981) Meristem culture and cryopreservation- Methods and applications. In: Thorpe TA (ed.) Plant Tissue Culture: Methods and Applications in Agriculture. Academic Press, New York, p 181–211Google Scholar
  204. Karuppanapandian T, Moon JC, Kim C, Manoharan K, Kim W (2011) Reactive oxygen species in plants: their generation, signal transduction and scavenging mechanisms. Aust J Crop Sci 5:709–725Google Scholar
  205. Kaveriappa KM, Phillips LM, Trigiano RN (1997) Micropropagation of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) from seedlings. Plant Cell Rep 16:485–489Google Scholar
  206. Keil M, Griffin RA (1994) Use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in the discrimination and verification of genotypes in Eucalyptus. Theor Appl Genet 89:442–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Kenneth E, Pallet KE, Young J (2000) Carotenoids. In: Ruth GA, Hess JL (eds) Antioxidants in higher plants. CRC Press, USA, p 60–81Google Scholar
  208. Khan A, Chauhan YS, Roberts LW (1986) In vitro studies on xylogenesis in Citrus fruit vesicles. 11. Effect of pH of the nutrient medium on the induction of cytodifferentiation. Plant Sci 46:213–216Google Scholar
  209. Khan MI, Ahmad N, Anis M (2011) The role of cytokinins on in vitro shoot production in Salix tetrasperma Roxb.: a tree of ecological importance. Trees 25:577–584Google Scholar
  210. Kilb B, Wietoska H, Godde D (1996) Changes in the expression of photosynthetic genes precede loss of photosynthetic activities and chlorophyll when glucose is supplied to mature spinach leaves. Plant Sci 115:225–235Google Scholar
  211. Kim MK, Sommer HE, Bongorten BC, Merkle SA (1997) High frequency induction of adventitious shoots from hypocotyls segments of Liquidambar styraciflua L. by thidiazuron. Plant Cell Rep 16:536–540Google Scholar
  212. Kitto SK, Janick J (1982) Polyox as an artificial seed coat for a sexual embryos. Hort Sci 17:488Google Scholar
  213. Knop W (1865) Quantitative Untersuchungen uber den Ernahrungsprozess der Pflanzen. Landwirtsch Vers Stn 7:93–107Google Scholar
  214. Koroch AR, Jr. Juliani HR, Juliani HR, Trippi VS (1997) Micropropagation and acclimatization of Hedeoma multiflorum. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 48:213–217Google Scholar
  215. Kotsias D, Roussos PA (2001) An investigation on the effect of different plant growth regulating compounds in in vitro shoot tip and node culture of lemon seedlings. Sci Hortic 89:115–128Google Scholar
  216. Kumar N, Vijay Anand KG, Reddy MP (2010) Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas: a biodiesel plant. Acta Physiol Plant 32:917–924Google Scholar
  217. Kumar R, Sharma K, Agrawal V (2005) In vitro clonal propagation of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. through nodal explants from mature trees. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 41:137–144Google Scholar
  218. Kumar S, Mangal M, Dhawan AK, Singh N (2011) Assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants of Simmondsia chinensis (Link.) Schneider using RAPD and ISSR markers. Acta Physiol Plant 33:2541–2545Google Scholar
  219. Kunze I (1994) Influence of the genotype on growth of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) in in vitro meristem culture. Silvae Genet 43:36–41Google Scholar
  220. Kwa SH, Wee YC, Lim TM, Kumar PP (1995) Establishment and physiological analyses of photoautotrophic callus cultures of the fern Platycerium coronarium (Koenig) Desv under CO2 enrichment. J Exp Bot 46:1535–1542Google Scholar
  221. Lakshmisita G, Chattopadhyay S, Tejavati DH (1986) Plant regeneration from shoot callus of rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.). Plant Cell Rep 5:266–268Google Scholar
  222. Lakshmisita G, Sreenatha KS, Sujata S (1992) Plantlet production from shoot tip cultures of red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus L.). Curr. Sci. 62: 532–535Google Scholar
  223. Lal N, Ahuja PS, Kukreja AK, Pandey B (1988) Clonal propagation of Picrorhiza kurroa Royale ex. Benth. by shoot tip culture. Plant Cell Rep 7:202–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Lameira OA, Pinto JEBP (2006) In vitro propagation of Cordia verbenaceae L. (Boraginaceae) Rev. Bras. Plant Med Botucatu 8:102–104Google Scholar
  225. Larkin P, Scowcroft WR (1981) Somaclonal variation, a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theor Appl Genet 60:197–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Lavanya M, Venkateshwarlu B, Devi BP (2009) Acclimatization of neem microshoots adaptable to semi-sterile conditions. Indian J Biotechnol 8:218–222Google Scholar
  227. Leblay C, Chevreau E, Raboin LM (1991) Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of several pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 25:99–105Google Scholar
  228. Leljak-Levanic D, Bauer N, Mihaljevic S, Jelaska S (2004) Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.): control of somatic embryo development by nitrogen compounds. J Plant Physiol 161:229–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Leroy XJ, Leon K, Charles G, Branchard M (2000) Cauliflower somatic embryogenesis and analysis of regenerant stability by ISSRs. Plant Cell Rep 19:1102–1107Google Scholar
  230. Leyser HMO, Pickett FB, Dharmsiri S, Estelle E (1996) Mutation in AXR3 gene of Arabidopsis result in altered auxin response including ectopic expression from the SAUR-AC1 promoter. Plant J 10:403–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Li G, Qulros CF (2001) Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), a new marker system based on a simple PCR reaction: its application to mapping and gene tagging in Brassica. Theor Appl Genet 103:455–461Google Scholar
  232. Li Y, Shi XY, Strabala TJ, Hagen G, Guilfoyle TJ (1994) Transgenic tobacco plants that overproduce cytokinins show increased tolerance to exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors. Plant Sci 100:9–14Google Scholar
  233. Libbenga KR, Mennes AM (1995) Hormone binding and signal transduction. In: Davies PJ (ed.) Plant Hormones: Physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. 2nd edn., Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht, p 272–297Google Scholar
  234. Lloyd G, McCown B (1980) Commercially feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot tip culture. Int Plant Prop Soc Proc 30:421–427Google Scholar
  235. Loc HN, Due TD, Kwon HT, Yang SM (2005) Micropropagation of zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe): a valuable medicinal plant. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 81:119–122Google Scholar
  236. Lombardi SP, Passos IRS, Nogueira MCS, Appezato-da-Gloria B (2007) In vitro shoot regeneration from roots and leaf discs of Passiflora cincinnata Mast. Braz Arch Biol Biotechnol 50:239–247Google Scholar
  237. Loo SW (1945a) Cultivation of excised stem tips of Asparagus in vitro. Am J Bot 32:13–17Google Scholar
  238. Loo SW (1945b) Cultivation of excised stem tips of intact plants under sterile conditions. Ph. D. Thesis. Pasadena: California Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  239. Loo SW (1946a) Further experiments on the culture of excised asparagus tips in vitro. Am J Bot 33:156–159Google Scholar
  240. Loo SW (1946b) Cultivation of excised stem tips of dodder in vitro. Am J Bot 33:295–300Google Scholar
  241. Lu CY (1993) The use of thidiazuron in tissue culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 29:92–96Google Scholar
  242. Ludwig-Muller J (2000) Indole-3-butyric acid in plant growth and development. Plant Growth Regul 32:219–230Google Scholar
  243. Lynch PT (1999) Tissue culture techniques in in vitro plant conservation. In: Benson EE (ed) Plant conservation biotechnology. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  244. Lyyra S, Lima A, Merkle S (2006) In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots. Tree Physiol 26:969–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Magyar-Tabori K, Dobranszki J, Teixeira da Silva JA, Bulley SM, Hudak I (2010) The role of cytokinins in shoot organogenesis in apple. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 101:251–267Google Scholar
  246. Malabadi RB, Staden JV (2005) Storability and germination of sodium alginate encapsulated somatic embryos derived from the vegetative shoot apices of mature Pinus patula trees. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 82:259–265Google Scholar
  247. Malik KA, Saxena PK (1992a) Thidiazuron induces high-frequency shoot regeneration in intact seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and lentil (Lens culinaris). Aust J Plant Physiol 19:731–740Google Scholar
  248. Malik KA, Saxena PK (1992b) In vitro regeneration of plants: a novel approach. Naturwissenschaften 79:136–137Google Scholar
  249. Mallikarjuna K, Rajendurdu G (2007) High frequency in vitro propagation of Holarrhena antidysentrica from nodal buds of mature tree. Biol Plant 51:525–529Google Scholar
  250. Mante SR Scorza, Cordts JM (1989) Plant regeneration from cotyledons of Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus cerasus. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 19:1–11Google Scholar
  251. Martin G, Geetha SP, Raja SS, Raghu AV, Balachandran I, Ravindran PN (2006) An efficient micropropagation system for Celastrus paniculatus Willd.: a vulnerable medicinal plant. J Fores Res 11:461–46Google Scholar
  252. Martin SM, Rose D (1976) Growth of plant cell (Ipomea) suspension cultures at controlled pH levels. Can J Bot 54:1264–1270Google Scholar
  253. Martins M, Sarmento D, Oliveira MM (2004) Genetic stability of micropropagated almond plantlets, as assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Plant Cell Rep 23:492–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. McCoy TJ, Smith LY (1986) Interspecific hybridization of perennial Medicago species using ovule-embryo culture. Tag 71:772–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. McGaw BA, Burch LR (1995) Cytokinin biosynthesis and metabolism. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 98–117Google Scholar
  256. Mehta UJ, Krishnamurthy KV, Hazra S (2000) Regeneration of plants via adventitious bud formation from zygotic embryo axis of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). Curr Sci 78:1231–1234Google Scholar
  257. Meijer EGM, Brown DCW (1987) Role of exogenous reduced nitrogen and sucrose in rapid high frequency somatic embryogenesis in Medicago sativa. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 10:11–19Google Scholar
  258. Merkle SA, Nairn CJ (2005) Hardwood tree biotechnology. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 41:602–619Google Scholar
  259. Micheli M, Hafiz IA, Standardi A (2007) Encapsulation of in vitro derived explants of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Moraiolo):II. Effects of storage on capsule and derived shoot performance. Sci Hortic 113:286–292Google Scholar
  260. Miller CO, Skoog F, Von Saltza MH, Strong FM (1955) Kinetin, a cell division factor from deoxyribonucleic acid. J Am Chem Soc 77:1392Google Scholar
  261. Mills D, Wenkart S, Benzioni A (1997) Micropropagation of Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in Agriculture and ForestryGoogle Scholar
  262. Mishra J, Singh M, Palni LMS, Nandi SK (2011) Assessment of genetic fidelity of encapsulated microshoots of Picrorhiza kurrooa. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 104:181–186Google Scholar
  263. Mishra P, Datta SK (2001) Acclimatization of Asiatic hybrid lilies under stress conditions after propagation through tissue culture. Curr Sci 81:1530–1533Google Scholar
  264. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Mok MC, Mok DW, Amstrong DJ, Shudo K, Isogai Y, Okamanto T (2005) Cytokinin activity of N-phenyl-N0–1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-urea (thidiazuron). Phytochem 21:1509–1511Google Scholar
  266. Molle F, Dupis JM, Ducos JP, Anselm A, Corulus-Savidan I, Petiard V, Freyssinel G (1993) Carrot somatic embryogenesis and its application to synthetic seeds. In: (Redenbaugh K ed) Synseeds, Application of synthetic seeds to crop improvement. CRC Press Boca Raton FL, USA, p 257–287Google Scholar
  267. Moller IM, Jensen PE, Hansson A (2007) Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:459–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Morel G (1964) Tissue culture—a new means of clonal propagation of orchids. Am Orchid Soc Bul 33:473–478Google Scholar
  269. Morimoto M, Nakamura K, Sano H (2006) Regeneration and genetic engineering of a tropical tree, Azadirachta excelsa. Plant Biotechnol 23:123–127Google Scholar
  270. Morton L, Browse J (1991) Facile transformation of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep 10:235–239Google Scholar
  271. Moshkov IE, Novikova GV, Hall MA and George EF (2008) Plant growth regulators III: gibberellins, ethylene, abscisic acid, their analogues and inhibitors; miscellaneous compounds. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk GJ (eds) Plant propagation by tissue culture. Springer, The Netherlands, p 227–282Google Scholar
  272. Murashige T (1974) Plant Propagation through tissue culture. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 25:135–166Google Scholar
  273. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497Google Scholar
  274. Murthy BNS, Murch SJ, Saxena PK (1988) Thidiazuron: a potent regulator of in vitro plant morphogenesis. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 34:267–272Google Scholar
  275. Mylona P, Dolan L (2002) The root meristem. In: McManus MT, Weit BE (eds) Meristematic tissues in plant growth and development. Sheffield Academic, Sheffield, p 279–292Google Scholar
  276. Nagaoka T, Ogihara Y (1997) Applicability of inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphism in wheat for use as DNA markers in comparision to RFLP and RAPD markers. Theor Appl Genet 94:597–602Google Scholar
  277. Naik D, Vartak V, Bhargava S (2003) Provenance- and subculture-dependent variation during micropropagation of Gmelina arborea. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 73:189–195Google Scholar
  278. Naik PM, Manohar SH, Praveen N, Murthy HN (2010) Effects of sucrose and pH levels on in vitro shoot regeneration from leaf explants of Bacopa monnieri and accumulation of bacoside A in regenerated shoots. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 100:235–239Google Scholar
  279. Naik SK, Chand PK (2006) Nutrient-alginate encapsulation of in vitro nodal segments of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) for germplasm distribution and exchange. Sci Hortic 108:247–252Google Scholar
  280. Nair LG, Seeni S (2001) Rapid in vitro multiplication and restoration of Celastrus paniculatus (Celastraceae), a medicinal woody climber. Indian J Exp Biol 39:697–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Nandwani D, Mathur N, Ramawat KG (1995) In vitro shoot multiplication from cotyledonary node explants of Tecomella undulata. Gartenbauwisseschaft 60:65–68Google Scholar
  282. Nas MN, Read PE (2004) Improved rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated hazelnut shoots. Hort Sci 39:1688–1690Google Scholar
  283. Nayak P, Behera PR, Manikkannan T (2007) High frequency plantlet regeneration from cotyledonary node cultures of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 43:231–236Google Scholar
  284. Naz S, Ali A, Siddique FA, Iqbal J (2008) Somatic embryogenesis from immature cotyledons and leaf calli of chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.). Pak J Bot 40:523–531Google Scholar
  285. Nedelcheva S (1986) Effect of inorganic components of the nutrient medium on in vitro propagation of pears. Genet Sel 19:404–406Google Scholar
  286. Nef-Campa C, Chaintreuil-Dongmo C, Dreyfus BL (1996) Regeneration of the tropical legume Aeschynomene sensitiva Sw. from root explants. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 44:149–154Google Scholar
  287. Niederwieser JG, Van Staden J (1990) the relationship between genotype, tissue age and endogenous cytokinin levels on adventitious bud formation on leaves of Lachenalia. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 22:223–228Google Scholar
  288. Nitsch JP, Nitsch C (1956) Auxin-dependent growth of excised Helianthus tissues. Am J Bot 43:839–851Google Scholar
  289. Nobecourt P (1939) Sur la perennite et l’augmentation de volume des cultures de tissues vegetaux. C. R. Seances Soc Biol Ses Fil 130:1270–1271Google Scholar
  290. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Noctor G, Gomez L, Vanacker H, Foyer CH (2002) Interactions between biosynthesis, compartmentation and transport in the control of gluthatione homeostasis and signalling. J Exp Bot 53:1283–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Nunes EDC, de Castilho CV, Moreno FN, Viana AM (2002) In vitro culture of Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 70:259–268Google Scholar
  293. Nyende A, Schittenhelm S, Mix-Wagner G, Greef JM (2003) Production, storability, and regeneration of shoot tips of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) encapsulated in calcium alginate hollow beads. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 39:540–544Google Scholar
  294. Ogunsola KE, Ilori CO (2007) In vitro propagation of miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum Daniel) through embryo and nodal cultures. Afr J Biotechnol 7:244–248Google Scholar
  295. Onay A (2000) Somatic embryogenesis in cultured kernels of pistachio, Pistacia vera L. cv. Siirt. Proceedings of the 2nd Balkan Botanical Congress, Istanbul, May 14–16, 2000. Plants of the Balkan Peninsula: Into the Next Millennium 11:109–115Google Scholar
  296. Ozias-Akins P, Vasil IK (1985) Nutrition of plant tissue cultures. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants. Cell growth, nutrition, cytodifferentiation and cryopreservation, Vol 2. Academic Press, New York, p 129–147Google Scholar
  297. Ozudogru EA, Kaya E, Kirdok E, Issever-Ozturk S (2011) In vitro propagation from young and mature explants of thyme (Thymus vulgaris and T. longicaulis) resulting in genetically stable shoots. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 47:309–320Google Scholar
  298. Panda BM, Hazra S (2010) In vitro regeneration of Semecarpus anacardium L. from axenic seedling-derived nodal explants. Trees 24:733–742Google Scholar
  299. Pandey S, Jaiswal VS (2002) Micropropagation of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. from coteledonary nodes. Indian J Exp Biol 40:950–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Pandey S, Singh M, Jaiswal U, Jaiswal VS (2006) Shoot initiation and multiplication from a mature tree of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 42:389–393Google Scholar
  301. Pant M, Bisht P, Gusain MP (2010) De novo Shoot Organogenesis from cultured root explants of Swertia chirata Buch.Ham.ex Wall.: An endangered medicinal plant. Nat Sci 8:244–252Google Scholar
  302. Park YS, Barret JD, Bonga JM (1998) Application of somatic embryogenesis in high-value clonal forestry: Deployment, genetic control, and stability of cryopreserved clones. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 34:231–239Google Scholar
  303. Parliman BJ, Evans PT, Rupert EA (1982) Tissue culture of single rhizome explants of Dionaea muscipula Ellis ex. L., the venus fly trap for rapid asexual propagation. Hort Sci 107:305–310Google Scholar
  304. Parveen S, Shahzad A (2011) A micropropagation protocol for Cassia angustifolia Vahl. from root explants. Acta Physiol Plant 33:789–796Google Scholar
  305. Parveen S, Shahzad A, Saema S (2010) In vitro plant regeneration system for Cassia siamea Lam., a leguminous tree of economic importance. Agrofores Syst 80:109–116Google Scholar
  306. Pasqua G, Manes F, Monacelli B, Natale L, Anselmi S (2002) Effects of the culture medium pH and ion uptake in in vitro vegetative organogenesis in thin cell layers of tobacco. Plant Sci 162:947–955Google Scholar
  307. Pattnaik J, Debata BK (1996) Micropropagation of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. through axillary bud culture. Plant Cell Rep 15:427–430Google Scholar
  308. Pattnaik S, Chand PK (2000) Morphogenic response of the alginate encapsulated axillary buds from in vitro shoot cultures of six mulberries. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 64:177–85Google Scholar
  309. Pattnaik SK, Chand PK (1997) Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana Hemsl., Morus ihou Koiz., and Morus serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot bud and nodal explants from mature trees. Plant Cell Rep 16:503–508Google Scholar
  310. Pattnaik SK, Chand PK, Naik SK, Pradhan C (2000) shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration from hypocotyl-derived cell suspensions of a tree legume, Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 36:407–411Google Scholar
  311. Pedroso C, Oliveira M, Pais SS (1992) Micropropagation and simultaneous rooting of Actinidia deliciosa var. ‘Hayward’. HortSci 27:443–445Google Scholar
  312. Pena-Ramirez YJ, Juarez-Gomez J, Gomez-Lopez L, Jeronimo-Perez JL, Garcia-Shesena I, Gonzalez-Rodriguez JA, Robert ML (2010) Multiple adventitious shoot formation in Spanish Red Cedar (Cedrela odorata L.) cultured in vitro using juvenile and mature tissues: an improved micropropagation protocol for a highly-valuable tropical tree species. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 46:149–160Google Scholar
  313. Pereira GJG, Molina SMG, Lea PJ, Azevedo RA (2002) Activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to cadmium in Crotalaria juncea. Plant Soil 239:123–132Google Scholar
  314. Pereira MJ (2006) Conservation of Vaccinium cylindraceum Smith (Ericaceae) by micropropagation using seedling nodal explants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 42:65–68Google Scholar
  315. Perveen S, Varshney A, Anis M, Aref IM (2011) Influence of cytokinins, basal media and pH on adventitious shoot regeneration from excised root cultures of Albizia lebbeck. J Fores Res 22:47–52Google Scholar
  316. Phillips GC, Collins GB (1979) In vitro tissue culture of selected legumes and plant regeneration from callus of red clover. Crop Sci 19:59–64Google Scholar
  317. Phulwaria M, Rai MK, Harish, Gupta AK, Ram K, Shekhawat NS (2012) An improved micropropagation of Terminalia bellirica from nodal explants of mature tree. Acta Physiol Plant 34:299–305Google Scholar
  318. Pinto G, Santos C, Neves L, Araújo C (2002) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Plant Cell Rep 21:208–213Google Scholar
  319. Pintos B, Bueno M, Cuenca B, Manzanera J (2008) Synthetic seed production from encapsulated somatic embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and automated growth monitoring. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 95:217–225Google Scholar
  320. Poddar K, Vishnoi RK, Kothari SL (1997) Plant regeneration from embryogenic callus of finger millet Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. on higher concentrations of NH4NO3 as a replacement of NAA in the medium. Plant Sci. 129:101–106Google Scholar
  321. Pospisilova J, Synkova H, Haisel D, Catsky J, Wilhelmova N, Sramek F (1999a) Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on acclimatization of tobacco plantlets to ex vitro conditions. J Exp Bot 50:119–126Google Scholar
  322. Pospisilova J, Ticha I, Kadlecek P, Haisel D, Plzakova S (1999b) Acclimatization of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions. Biol Plant 42:481–497Google Scholar
  323. Powling A, Hussey G (1981) Stimulation of multiple shoot bud formation in walnut seeds. Hort Sci 17:592Google Scholar
  324. Pradhan C, Kar S, Pattnaik S, Chand PK (1998) Propagation of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. through in vitro shoot proliferation from cotyledonary nodes. Plant Cell Rep 18:122–126Google Scholar
  325. Prakash E, Khan PSSV, Rao TJVS, Meru ES (2006) Micropropagation of red sanders (Pterocarpus santalinus L.) using mature nodal explants. J Fores Res 11:329–33Google Scholar
  326. Prakash S, Van Staden J (2008) Micropropagation of Searsia dentata. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 44:338–341Google Scholar
  327. Preece KE, Sutter EG (1991) Acclimatization of micropropagated plants to the greenhouse and field. In: DeBergh PC; Zimmerman RH.(eds) Micropropagation, technology and application. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 71–93Google Scholar
  328. Premkumar A, Mercado JA, Quesada MA (2001) Effects of in vitro tissue culture conditions and acclimatization on the contents of Rubisco, leaf soluble proteins, photosynthetic pigments, and C/N ratio. J Plant Physiol 158:835–840Google Scholar
  329. Purkayastha J, Sugla T, Paul A, Solleti S, Sahoo L (2008) Rapid in vitro multiplication and plant regeneration from nodal explants of Andrographis paniculata, a valuable medicinal plant. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 44:442–447Google Scholar
  330. Purohit SD, Kukda G (1994) In vitro propagation of Wrightia tinctoria. Biol Plant 36:519–526Google Scholar
  331. Quoirin M, Lepoivre P (1977) Etude de milieux adaptes aux cultures in vitro de Prunus. Acta Hortic 78:437–442Google Scholar
  332. Quraishi A, Koche V, Sharma P, Mishra SK (2004) In vitro clonal propagation of neem (Azadiracta indica). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 78:281–283Google Scholar
  333. Raghu AV, Geetha SP, Martin G, Balachandran I, Ravindran PN, Mohanan KV (2007) An improved micropropagation protocol for Bael- a vulnerable medicinal tree. Res J Bot 2:186–194Google Scholar
  334. Rai MK, Asthana P, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U (2010) Biotechnological advances in guava (Psidium guajava L.): recent developments and prospects for further research. Trees 24:1–12Google Scholar
  335. Rai MK, Asthana P, Singh SK, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U (2009) The encapsulation technology in fruit plants- A review. Biotechnol Adv 27:671–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Rai MK, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U (2008) Alginate-encapsulation of nodal segments of guava (Psidium guajava L.) for germplasms exchange and distribution. J Hortic Sci Biotech 83:569–573Google Scholar
  337. Rajeswari V, Paliwal K (2008) In vitro plant regeneration of red sanders (Pterocarpus santalinus L. f.) from cotyledonary nodes. Indian J Biotechnol 7:541–546Google Scholar
  338. Rao CD, Goh CJ, Kumar PP (1996) High frequency adventitious shoot regeneration from excised leaves of Paulownia spp. cultured in vitro. Plant Cell Rep 16: 204–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Rauf S, Rahman H, Khan TM (2004) Effect of Kinetin on multiple shoot induction in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) cv. NIAB—999. Iranian J Biotechnol 4: 279–282Google Scholar
  340. Reddy SP, Rama Gopal G, Laxshmi Sita G (1998) In vitro multiplication of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.—An important medicinal plant. Curr Sci 75:843–845Google Scholar
  341. Redenbaugh K, Fuji JA, Slade D (1991) Synthetic seeds technology. In: Vasil IK (ed.) Scale-up and Automation in Plant Propagation. Academic Press, San Diego, p 35–74Google Scholar
  342. Reiter RS, Williams JGK, Feldmann KA, Rafalaski JA, Tingby SV, Scolink PA (1992) Global and local genome mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana by using recombinant inbred lines and random amplified polymorphic DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:1477–1481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Robbins WJ (1922) Cultivation of excised root tips and stem tips under sterile conditions. Bot Gaz 73:376–390Google Scholar
  344. Roberts AW, Haigler CH (1994) Cell expansion and tracheary element differentiation are regulated by extracellular pH in mesophyll cultures of Zinnia elegans L. Plant Physiol 105:699–706PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Rodriguez R (1982) Stimulation of multiple shoot bud formation in walnut seeds. Hort Sci 17:592Google Scholar
  346. Rolland F, Moore B, Sheen J (2002) Sugar sensing and signaling in plants. Plant Cell 14:185–205Google Scholar
  347. Rout GR, Samantray S, Das P (2000) In vitro manipulation and propagation of medicinal plants. Biotechnol Adv 18:91–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Ruffoni B, Gazzano A, Costantino C (1994) Micropropagazione di Myrtus communis Mill.: Effetto dell’acido indolacetico sulla radicazione. Italus Hortus 1:8–12Google Scholar
  349. Ruiz RM, Rivero HAS, Rudriquez de la OJL, Alcala VMC, Espinosa MAG, Castellanos JS (2005) Micropropagación clonal in vitro en Eucalyptus grandis y E. Urophylla. Ra Ximhai 1:111–130Google Scholar
  350. Sankhla D, Davis TD, Sankhla N (1994) Thidiazuron- induced in vitro shoot formation from roots of intact seedlings of Albizia julibrissin. Plant Growth Regul 14:267–272Google Scholar
  351. Scarpa MG, Milia M, Satta M (2000) The influence of growth regulators on proliferation and rooting of in vitro propagated myrtle. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 62:175–179Google Scholar
  352. Schaeffer WI (1990) Terminology associated with cell, tissue and organ culture, molecular biology and molecular genetics. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 26:97–101Google Scholar
  353. Schleiden MJ (1838) Beitrage zur Phytogenesis. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. Med (J Muller) 137–176Google Scholar
  354. Scholten HJ, Pierik RLM (1998) Agar as a gelling agent: chemical and physical analysis. Plant Cell Rep 17:230–235Google Scholar
  355. Schwann T (1839) Mikroscopische Untersuchungen uber die Ubereinstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachstum des Thiere und Pflanzen. W Engelmann: Leipzig No. 176Google Scholar
  356. Selvakkumar C, Balakrishnan A, Lakshmi BS (2007) Rapid in vitro micropropagation of Alpinia officinarum Hance., an important medicinal plant, through rhizome bud explants. Asi J Plant Sci 6:1251–1255Google Scholar
  357. Serret MD, Trillas MI, Matas J, Araus JL (1997) Development of photoautotrophy and photoinhibition of Gardenia jasmoides plantlets during micropropagation. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 45:1–16Google Scholar
  358. Sha Valli Khan PS, Prakash E, Rao KR (1997) In vitro propagation of an endemic fruit tree Syzygium alternifolium (Wight) Walp. Plant Cell Rep 16:325–328Google Scholar
  359. Shahin-uz-zaman M, Ashrafuzzaman H, Shahidul Haque M, Lutfun LN (2008) In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Afri J Biotechnol 7:386–391Google Scholar
  360. Shahzad A, Faisal M, Anis M (2007) Micropropagation through excised root culture of Clitoria ternatea and comparison between in vitro regenerated plants and seedlings. Ann Appl Biol 150:341–349Google Scholar
  361. Shan Z, Raemakers K, Tzitzikas EN, Ma Z, Visser RGF (2005) Development of a highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr]. Plant Cell Rep 24:507–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Sharma AK, Sharma M, Chaturvedi HC (2002) Conservation of phytodiversity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. through in vitro strategies, in Role of Plant Tissue Culture in Biodiversity Conservation and Economic Developments, edited by SK Nandi, LMS Palni and A Kumar (Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India) 513–520Google Scholar
  363. Sharma P, Koche V, Quraishi A, Mishra SK (2005) Somatic embryogenesis in Buchanania lanzan spreng. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 41:645–647Google Scholar
  364. Shekhawat MS, Shekhawat NS (2011) Micropropagation of Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm) DC and production of alkannin from callus and cell suspension culture. Acta Physiol Plant 33:1445–1450Google Scholar
  365. Shepley S, Chen C, Chang JLL (1972) Does gibberellic acid stimulates seed germination via amylase synthesis. Plant Physiol 49:441–442Google Scholar
  366. Shirin F, Rana PK, Mandal AK (2005) In vitro clonal propagation of mature Tectona grandis through axillary bud proliferation. J Fores Res 10:465–469Google Scholar
  367. Shrivastava S, Banerjee M (2008) In vitro clonal propagation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.): Influence of additives. Int J Integ Biol 3:73–79Google Scholar
  368. Shukla S, Shukla SK, Mishra SK (2009) In vitro plant regeneration from seedling explants of Stereospermum personatum D.C.: a medicinal tree. Trees 23:409–413Google Scholar
  369. Shyamkumar B, Anjaneyulu C, Giri CC (2003) Multiple shoot induction from cotyledonary node explants of Terminalia chebula Retz: a tree of medicinal importance. Biol Plant 47:585–588Google Scholar
  370. Siddique I, Anis M (2007 a) In vitro shoot multiplication and plantlet regeneration from nodal explants of Cassia angustifolia (Vahl.): a medicinal plant. Acta Physiol Plant 29:233–238Google Scholar
  371. Siddique I, Anis M (2007b) High frequency shoot regeneration and plantlet formation in Cassia angustifolia (Vahl.) using thidiazuron. Med. Aroma. Plant Sci Biotechnol 1:282–284Google Scholar
  372. Siddique I, Anis M (2008) An improved plant regeneration system and ex vitro acclimatization of Ocimum basilicum L. Acta Physiol Plant 30:493–499Google Scholar
  373. Siddique I, Anis M (2009b) Morphogenic response of the alginated encapsulated nodal segments and antioxidative enzymes analysis during acclimatization of Ocimum basilicum L. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 12:233–238Google Scholar
  374. Siddique I, Anis M, Aref IM (2010) In Vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.—a potential medicinal plant. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162:2067–2074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Siddique I, Anis M, Jahan AA (2006) Rapid multiplication of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation. World J Agric Sci 2:188–192Google Scholar
  376. Sim GE, Goh CJ, Loh CS (1989) Micropropagation of Citrus mitis Blanco- multiple bud formation from shoot and root explants in the presence of 6- benzyaminopurine. Plant Sci 59:203–210Google Scholar
  377. Simoes C, Albarello N, Callado CH, Carvalho de Castro T, Mansur E (2009) New approaches for shoot production and establishment of in vitro root cultures of Cleome rosea Vahl. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 98:79–86.Google Scholar
  378. Singh A, Reddy MP, Patolia JS (2008) An improved protocol for micropropagation of elite genotypes of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider. Biol Plant 52:538–542Google Scholar
  379. Singh KK, Gurung B (2009) In vitro propagation of R. maddeni endangered Rhododendron species of Sikkim Himalaya. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Chij 37:79–83Google Scholar
  380. Singh S, Rai M, Asthana P, Pandey S, Jaiswal V, Jaiswal U (2009) Plant gregeneration from alginate-encapsulated shoot tips of Spilanthes acmella L. Murr., a medicinally important and herbal pesticidal plant species. Acta Physiol Plant 31:649–894Google Scholar
  381. Singh SK, Rai MK, Asthana P, Sahoo L (2010) Alginate-encapsulation of nodal segments for propagation, short-term conservation and germplasm exchange and distribution of Eclipta alba (L.) Acta Physiol Plant 32:607–610Google Scholar
  382. Siril EA, Dhar U (1997) Micropropagation of mature Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.). Plant Cell Rep 16:637–640Google Scholar
  383. Sivakumar G, Kim SJ, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2005) Optimizing environmental factors for large-scale multiplication of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum grandiflorum) in balloon-type bioreactor culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 41:822–825Google Scholar
  384. Sivanesan I, Lee YM, Song JY, Jeong BR (2007) Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf and petiole explants of Campanula punctata Lam and Rubriflora makino. Prop Ornament Plants 7:210–215Google Scholar
  385. Skoog F, Miller CO (1957) Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissues cultured in vitro. Symp. Soc Exp Biol 11:118–131Google Scholar
  386. Skoog F, Tsui C (1951) Growth substances and the formation of buds in plant tissues. In: Skoog F (ed) Plant growth substances. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, p 263–285Google Scholar
  387. Smeets K, Cuypers A, Lambrechts A, Semane B, Hoet P, Van Laere A, Vangronsveld J (2005) Induction of oxidative stress and antioxidative mechanisms in Phaseolus vulgaris after Cd application. Plant Physiol Biochem 43:437–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Standardi A, Piccioni E (1998) Recent perspectives on synthetic seed technology using nonembryogenic in vitro derived explants. Plant Sci 159:968–978Google Scholar
  389. Stimart D, Harbage JH (1993) Growth of rooted “Gala” apple microcuttings ex vitro as influenced by initial adventitious root count. Hort Sci 28:664–666Google Scholar
  390. Strnad M, Hanus J, Vanek T, Kaminek M, Ballantine JA, Fussel B, Hanke DE (1997) Meta-topolin, a highly active aromatic cytokinin from poplar leaves (Populus x Canadensis Moench., cv. Robusta). Phytochem 45:213–218Google Scholar
  391. Stuart R, Street HE (1971) Studies on the growth in culture of plant cells. J Exp Bot 22:96–106Google Scholar
  392. Sudha CG, Seeni S (1996) In vitro propagation of Rauwolfia micrantha, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 44:243–248Google Scholar
  393. Sugiyama M (1999) Organogenesis in vitro. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Sujatha K, Hazra S (2007) Micropropagation of mature Pongamia pinnata Pierre. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 43:608–613Google Scholar
  395. Sukartiningsih, Nakamura K, Ide Y (1999) Clonal propagation of Gmelina arborea Roxb. by in vitro culture. J Fores Res 4:47–51Google Scholar
  396. Sun Y, Zhao Y, Wang X, Qiao G, Chen G, Yang Y, Zhou J, Jin L, Zhuo R (2009) Adventitious bud regeneration from leaf explants of Platanus occidentalis L. and genetic stability assessment. Acta Physiol Plant 31:33–41Google Scholar
  397. Sundararaj SG, Agrawal A, Tyagi RK (2010) Encapsulation for in vitro short-term storage and exchange of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) germplasm. Sci Hortic 125:761–766Google Scholar
  398. Suttle GR (2000) Commercial laboratory production. In: Trigiano RN, Gray DJ (eds) Plant tissue culture concepts and laboratory exercises. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 407–416Google Scholar
  399. Swarup R, Parry G, Graham N, Allen T, Bennett M (2002) Auxin cross-talk: integration of signaling pathways to control plant development. Plant Mol Biol 49:411–426Google Scholar
  400. Taha HS, Behkeet SA, Saker MM (2001) Factors affecting in vitro multiplication of date palm. Biol Plant 44:431–433Google Scholar
  401. Tang W, Guo Z (2001) In vitro propagation of loblolly pine via direct somatic organogenesis from mature cotyledons and hypocotyls. Plant Growth Regul 33:25–31Google Scholar
  402. Tereso S, Miguel C, Maroco J, Oliveira MM (2006) Susceptibility of embryogenic and organogenic tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) to antibiotics used in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 87:33–40Google Scholar
  403. Thakur A, Kanwar JS (2008) Micropropagation of ‘Wild Pear’ Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. F.) Nakai. I. explant establishment and shoot multiplication. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 35:103–108Google Scholar
  404. Thomas T (2003) Advances in mulberry tissue culture. J Plant Biol 45:7–21Google Scholar
  405. Thomas TD, Puthur JT (2004) Thidiazuron induced high frequency shoot organogenesis in callus from Kigelia pinnata L. Bot Bull Acad Sin 45:307–313Google Scholar
  406. Thorpe T, Stasolla C, Yeung EC, De Klerk GJ, Roberts A, George EF (2008) The components of plant tissue culture media II: organic additions, osmotic and pH effects and support systems. In: George EF, Hall MA., De Klerk G-J. (edn) Plant propagation by tissue culture 3rd edition, vol.1. The background. Published by Springer, Dordrecht, p 143Google Scholar
  407. Thorpe TA (ed) (1995) In vitro embryogenesis in plants. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  408. Tiwari KP, Sharma MC, Tiwari SK (1997) Tissue culture protocols for teak (Tectona grandis), neem (Azadirachta indica) and khamer (Gmelina arborea). SFRI Technical Bulletin No. 29, State Forest Research Institute, JabalpurGoogle Scholar
  409. Tiwari SK, Tiwari KP, Siril EA (2002) An improved micropropagation protocol for teak. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 71:1–6Google Scholar
  410. Torrey JG (1958) Differential mitotic response of diploid and polyploidy nuclei to auxin and kinetin treatment. Sci 128:1148Google Scholar
  411. Tripathi M, Kumari N (2010) Micropropagation of a tropical fruit tree Spondias mangifera Willd. through direct organogenesis. Acta Physiol Plant 32:1011–1015Google Scholar
  412. Tsay HS, Lee CY, Agrawal DC, Basker S (2006) Influence of ventilation closure, gelling agent and explant type on shoot bud proliferation and hyperhydricity in Scrophularia yoshmurae—a medicinal plant. Plant 42:445–449Google Scholar
  413. Tsumara SE, Maschinski J, Keim P (1996) An analysis of genetic variation in Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax, a critically endangered plant using AFLP markers. Mol Ecol 5:735–745Google Scholar
  414. Tsvetkov I, Hausman JE (2005) In vitro regeneration from alginate encapsulated microcuttings of Quercus sp. Sci Hort 103:503–507Google Scholar
  415. Tsvetkov I, Huasman JF, Jouve L (2007) Thidiazuron-induced regeneration in root segments of White Popular (P. alba L.). Bulgarian J Agri Sci 13:623–626Google Scholar
  416. Van Huylenbroeck J, Debergh PC (1996) Impact of sugar concentration in vitro on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism during ex vitro acclimatization of Spathiphyllum plantlets. Phys Plant 96:298–304Google Scholar
  417. Van Huylenbroeck JM, Piqueras A, Debergh PC (2000) The evolution of photosynthesis capacity and the antioxidant enzymatic system during acclimatization of micropropagated Calathea plants. Plant Sci 155:59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Van Huylenbroeck JM, Van Laere IMB, Piqueras A, Debergh PC, Buneo P (1998b) Time course of Catalase and Superoxide dismutase during acclimatization and growth of micropropagated Calathea and Spathiphyllum plants. Plant Growth Reg 26:7–14Google Scholar
  419. Van Staden J, Zazimalova E, George EF (2008) Plant growth regulators II: Cytokinins, their analogues and antagonists. In: George EF, Hall MA, De Klerk GJ (eds) Plant propagation by tissue culture, 3rd edn. Springer, Dordrecht, p 205–226Google Scholar
  420. Varshney A, Anis M (2011) Improvement of shoot morphogenesis in vitro and assessment of changes of the activity of antioxidant enzymes during acclimation of micropropagated plants of Desert Teak. Acta Physiol. Plant. (In Press). DOI 10.1007/s11738-011-0883-9Google Scholar
  421. Varshney A, Lakshmikumaran M, Srivastava PS, Dhawan V (2001) Establishment of genetic fidelity of in vitro-raised Lilium bulblets through RAPD markers. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 37:227–231Google Scholar
  422. Vasil IK (1959) Nucleic acids and the survival of excised anthers in vitro. Science 129:1487–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Vasil IK (ed) (1999) Advances in cellular and molecular biology of plants. Molecular improvement of cereal crops, vol 5. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  424. Vejsadova H (2008) Growth regulator effect on in vitro regeneration of rhododendron cultivars. Hort. Sci. (Prague) 35:90–94Google Scholar
  425. Vengadesan G, Selvaraj N, Amutha S, Ganapathi A (2002) In vitro propagation of Acacia species—a review. Plant Sci 163:663–671Google Scholar
  426. Venkatachalam L, Sreedha RV, Bhagyalakshmi N (2007) Micropropagation in banana using high levels of cytokinins does not involve any genetic changes as revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Plant Growth Regul 51:193–205Google Scholar
  427. Viana da Silva C, Silva de Oliveira L, Loriato VAP, Campos da Silva L, Salabert de Campos JM, Viccini LF, Jardim de Oliveira E, Otoni WC (2011) Organogenesis from root explants of commercial populations of Passiflora edulis Sims and a wild passionfruit species, P. cincinnata Masters. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 107:407–416Google Scholar
  428. Vila S, Gonzalez A, Rey H, Mroginski L (2005) Plant regeneration, origin, and development of shoot buds from root segments of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) seedlings. In Vitro Cell. Dev Biol- Plant. 41:746–751Google Scholar
  429. Virchow R (1858) Die Cellullarpathologie im ihrer Begru¨ngung und physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre. A Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  430. Vochting H (1878) Uber Oganbildung im Pflanzenreich. Max Cohen, BonnGoogle Scholar
  431. Von Willert DJ, Matyssek R, Herppich W (1995) Experimentelle Pflanzenokologie. Gundlagem and Anwendungen, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  432. Vos P, Hogers R, Blecker M, Reujans M, Van de Le T, Hornes M, Frijiters A, Pot A, Pelemen J, Kuiper M, Zabeau M (1995) AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23:4407–4414PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Wang HM, Zu YG, Dong FL, Zhao XJ (2005) Assessment of factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration from axillary bud explants of Camptotheca acuminata. J Fores Res 16:52–54Google Scholar
  434. Wang Q (1991) Shoot multiplication of pear in double-phase medium culture. Acta Hortic 289:349–350Google Scholar
  435. Welsh J, McClelland M (1991) Genomic fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed PCR and a matrix of pairwise combinations of primers. Nucleic Acids Res 19:5275–5279PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Went FW (1928) Wuchstoff und Wachstum. Rec Trav Bot Neerl 25:1–116Google Scholar
  437. Went FW, Thimann KV (1937) Phytohormones. The MacMillan Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  438. Werbrouck SPO, Strnad M, Van Onckelen HA, Debergh PC (1996) Meta-topolin, an alternative to benzyladenine in tissue culture? Physiol. Plant 98:291–297Google Scholar
  439. West TP, Ravindra MB, Preece JE (2006) Encapsulation, cold storage and growth of Hibiscus moscheutos nodal segments. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 87:223–231Google Scholar
  440. White PR (1934a) Potentially unlimited growth of excised tomato root tips in a liquid medium. Plant Physiol 9:585–600Google Scholar
  441. White PR (1934b) Multiplication of the viruses of tobacco and Aucuba mosaics in growing excised tomato root tips. Phytopath 24:1003–1011Google Scholar
  442. White PR (1939) Potentially unlimited growth of excised plant callus in an artificial nutrient. Am J Bot 26:59–64Google Scholar
  443. White PR (1942) Plant tissue cultures. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 11:615–628Google Scholar
  444. White PR (1943) A handbook of plant tissue culture. Jacques Cattell Press, TempeGoogle Scholar
  445. Williams JGK, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primres are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:6531–6535PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Williamson B, Cooke DEL, Duncan JM, Leifert C (1998) Fungal infections of micropropagated plants at weaning: a problem exemplified by downy mildews in Rubus and Rosa. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 52:89–96Google Scholar
  447. Winton L (1968) Plantlets from asper tissue cultures. Sci 160:1234–1235Google Scholar
  448. Wolter KE (1968) Root and shoot initiation in aspen callus cultures. Nature 219:509–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Xu J, Yuzhen W, Zhang Y, Chai T (2008) Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Malus zumi (Matsumura) Rehd. Acta Physiol Plant 30:129–232Google Scholar
  450. Yan H, Liang C, Yang L, Li Y (2010) In vitro and ex vitro rooting of Siratia grosvenorii, a traditional medicinal plant. Acta Physiol Plant 32:115–120Google Scholar
  451. Yancheva SD, Golubowicz S, Fisher E, Lev-Yadun S, Flaishman MA (2003) Auxin type and timing of application determine the activation of the developmental program during in vitro organogenesis in apple. Plant Sci 165:299–309Google Scholar
  452. Yannarelli GG, Gallego SM, Tomaro ML (2006) Effect of UV-B radiation on the activity and isoforms of enzymes with peroxidase activity in sunflower cotyledons. Environ Exp Bot 56:174–181Google Scholar
  453. Yasodha R, Sumathi R, Gurumurthi K (2004) Micropropagation for quality propagule production in plantation forestry. Indian J Biotechnol 3:159–170Google Scholar
  454. Yeo DY, Reed BM (1995) Micropropagation of three Pyrus rootstocks. HortSci 30:620–623Google Scholar
  455. Yue D, Gosselin A, Desjardins Y (1993) Re-examination of the photosynthetic capacity of in vitro-cultured strawberry plantlets. J Am Soc Hort Sci 118:419–424Google Scholar
  456. Zhihui S, Tzitzikas M, Raemakers K, Zhengqiang M, Visser R (2009) Effect of TDZ on plant regeneration from mature seeds in pea (Pisum sativum). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol- Plant 45:776–782Google Scholar
  457. Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A, Labuda D (1994) Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification. Genomics 20:176–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Zimmerman RH, Fordham I (1985) Simplified method for rooting apple cultivars in vitro. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 110:34–38Google Scholar
  459. Zobayed SMA, Saxena PK (2003) In vitro-grown roots: a superior explants for prolific shoot regeneration of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. cv. “New Stem”) in a temporary immersion bioreactor. Plant Sci 165:463–470Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany Plant Biotechnology LaboratoryAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations