Advertisement

Introduction

  • Ankita Varshney
  • Mohammad Anis
Chapter

Abstract

Biodiversity, as this assemblage of life-forms is referred to, has now been acknowledged as the foundation for sustainable livelihood and food security. Forests are one of the most valuable ecosystems in the world, containing more than 60 % of the world’s biodiversity. Forest trees are recognized as a raw-material base for industrial and domestic wood products, which perpetually provide renewable energy, fiber, and timber. Besides other valuable products, several trees are recognized for their medicinal and pharmaceutical importance. The economic benefits of planted forests have led to their widespread adoption throughout the world. To maintain and sustain forest vegetation, conventional approaches have been exploited for propagation and improvement, but tree-breeding efforts are restricted to the most valuable and fast-growing species. However, such methods are limited by several inherent bottlenecks because trees are generally slow-growing, long-lived, sexually self-incompatible, and highly heterozygous plants. Tissue culture and other biotechnological approaches offer tremendous scope towards the desired objectives. This chapter deals with a brief introduction about global and national status of forests and applications and limitations of plant tissue culture for trees with a special reference to a semiarid tree, Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.

Keywords

Plant Tissue Culture Steroidal Saponin Root Sucker Plant Tissue Culture Technique Furostanol Glycoside 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahuja MR (1993) Micropropagation a la carte. In: Ahuja MR (ed) Micropropagation of woody plants, forestry series, vol 41. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  2. Amalraj VA, Shankanarayan KA (1998) Ecological distribution of Balanites roxburghii plant in arid Rajasthan. J Trop Fores 2:183–187Google Scholar
  3. Anis M, Ahmad N, Siddique I, Varshney A, Naz R, Perveen S, Khan Md I, Ahmed Md R, Husain MK, Khan PR, Aref IM (2012) Biotechnological approaches for the conservation of some forest tree species. In: Jenkins AJ (ed) Forest decline: causes and impacts. Nova Publishers, Inc., pp 1–39Google Scholar
  4. Anis M, Varshney A, Siddique I (2010) In vitro clonal propagation of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Agrofores Syst 78:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2001) The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 2:3–5Google Scholar
  6. Chapagain B, Yehoshua Y, Wiesman Z (2009) Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an arid lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Bio Technol 100:1221–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deshmukh SJ, Bhuyar LB (2009) Transesterified Hingan (Balanites) oil as a fuel for compression ignition engines. Bio Bioen 3:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evans J (1998) The sustainability of wood production in plantation forestry. Unasylva 49:47–52Google Scholar
  9. Farid H, Haslinger E, Kumert O (2002) New steroidal glycosides from Balanites aegyptiaca. Helv Chim Acta 85:1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FRA (2001) Global Forest Resources Assessment (2000, FAO, Rome) www.fao.org/forestry/ fo/fra/index.jsp
  11. Gaur K, Nema RK, Kori ML, Sharma CS, Singh V (2009) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Balanites aegyptiaca in experimental animals models. Int J Green Pharma 214–217Google Scholar
  12. Giri CC, Shyankumar B, Anjaneyulu C (2004) Progress in tissue culture, genetic transformation and applications of biotechnology to trees: an overview. Trees 18:115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gour VS, Emmanuel CJSK, Kant T (2005) Direct in vitro shoot morphogenesis in desert date- Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. from root segments. Multipurpose trees in the tropics: management and improvement Strategies, pp 701–704Google Scholar
  14. Gour VS, Sharma SK, Emmanuel CJSK, Kant T (2007a) A rapid in vitro morphogenesis and acclimatization protocol for Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del.- a medicinally important xerophytic tree. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 16:151–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gour VS, Sharma SK, Emmanuel CJSK, Kant T (2007b) Stomata and cholorophyll content as marker traits for hardening of in vitro raised Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. plantlets. Natl Acad Sci Lett India 30:45–47Google Scholar
  16. Gurumurthi K (1994) Forest tree improvement in India-Baseline strategy, in UNDP/FAO project on improved productivity of man-made projects through application of technological advance in tree breeding and propagation (FAO, Rome), pp 1–41Google Scholar
  17. Hall JB, Walker DH (1991) Balanites aegyptiaca; A monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Science, University of Wales, Banger, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  18. Harry IS, Thorpe TA (1994) In vitro culture of forest trees. In: Vasil IK, Thorpe TA (eds) Plant cell and tissue culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 539–560Google Scholar
  19. Hendrix SD, Kyhl JF (2000) Population size and reproduction in Phlox pilosa. Conserv Biol 14:304–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ibrahim AM (1992) Anthelmintic activity of some Sudanese medicinal plants. Phytother Res 6:155–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. IUCN (2010) IUCN Red List of Endangered Species In: http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  22. IUCN (ed) (1998) The 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK; Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, international Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 862Google Scholar
  23. Kamboj VP (2000) Herbal medicines. Curr Sci 78:35–39Google Scholar
  24. Kamel MS (1998) A furostanol saponin from fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca. Phytochem 48:755–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanonshi PJ (1997) Plantation forestry for the 21st century, XIth World for Congress, held on 13–22 Oct, 1997 (Antalya, Turkey) , pp 23–34Google Scholar
  26. Krishnan PN, Decruse SW, Radha RK (2011) Conservation of medicinal plants of Western Ghats, India and its sustainable utilization through in vitro technology. Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 47:110–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lakshmisita G, Raghavaswamy BV (1998) Application of biotechnology in forest trees clonal multiplication of sandal wood, rose wood, teak, eucalypts and bamboos by tissue culture in India. In: Puri (ed) Tree improvement. Oxford, New Delhi, pp 233–248Google Scholar
  28. Lindin T (2002) Isolation and structure determination of saponins from Balanites aegyptiaca. M.Sc. Thesis. The Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu HW, Nakanishi K (1982) The structure of Balanites; potent molluscides isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca. Tetrahedron 38:513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCown BH (2000) Recalcitrance of woody and herbaceous perennial plants: dealing with genetic predetermination. Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 36:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Merritt DJ, Dixon KW (2003) Seed storage characteristics and dormancy of Australian indigenous plant species. In: Smith RD, Dickie JB, Linington SH, Pritchard HW, Probert RJ (eds) Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Cromwell, London, pp 809–823Google Scholar
  32. Merritt DJ, Turner SR, Clarke S, Dixon KW (2007) Seed dormancy and germination stimulation syndromes for Australian temperate species. Aust J Bot 55:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohamed AM, Wolf W, Speiss W (2002) Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Kernels. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57:179–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ndoye M, Diallo I, Gassamaldia YK (2003) In vitro multiplication of the semi-arid forest tree, Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Afr J Biotechnol 2:421–424Google Scholar
  35. Neuwinger HD (1996) African ethnobotany: poisons and drugs. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 884–890Google Scholar
  36. Pandey D, Ball J (1998) The role of industrial plantations in future global fibre supplies. Unasylva 49:37–43Google Scholar
  37. Pettit GR, Doubek DL, Herald DL, Numata A, Takahasi C, Fujiki R, Miyamoto T (1991) Isolation and structure of cytostatic steroidal saponins from the African medicinal plant Balanites aegyptiaca. J Nat Prod 54:1491–1502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pierik RLM (1997) In vitro culture of higher plants. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  39. Rao MV, Shah KD, Rajani M (1997) Contraceptive efficacy of Balanites roxburghii pericarp extract in male mice (Mus musculus). Phytother Res 11:469–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sands MJ (2001) The desert date and its relatives: a revision of the genus Balanites. Kew Bulletin 56:1–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sarker SD, Bartholomew B, Nash RJ (2000) Alkaloids from Balanites aegyptiaca. Fitoterapia 71:328–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sharma M (2002) Agricultural biotechnology, in country case studies, edited by GJ Persley and LR Maclntyre (CAB International) 51–60Google Scholar
  43. Siddique I, Anis M (2009a) Direct plant regeneration from nodal explants of Balanites aegyptiaca L. (Del.): a valuable medicinal tree. New Fores 37:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sidiyene EA (1996) Trees and shrubs in the Adrar Iforas, Mali. Editions de I’orslom, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  45. Srivastava J, Lambert J, Vietmayer N (1995) Medicinal plants: a growing role in development agriculture and natural resources. Department of agriculture and forestry system. The World Bank, Washington, USAGoogle Scholar
  46. Staerk D, Chapagain BP, Lindin T, Wiesman Z, Jaroszewski JW (2006) Structural analysis of complexsaponins of Balanites aegyptiaca by 800 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Chem 44:923–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thorpe TA, Harry IS (1991) Application of micropropagation to forestry. In: Debergh PC, Zimmerman RH (eds) Micropropagation: technology and application. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 311–336Google Scholar
  48. Varshney A, Anis M (2013) Direct plantlet regeneration from segments of root of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (L.)- a biofuel arid tree. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 4:987–999Google Scholar
  49. Vines G (2004) Herbal harvests with a future: towards a sustainable source for medicinal plants, Plant Life International. www.plantlife.org.uk.
  50. Von Maydell HJ (1984) Arbes et arbustes du Sahel: leurs caracteristiques et leurs utilisations. GTZ, Eschborn, 531Google Scholar
  51. Williams CG, Savolainen O (1996) Inbreeding depression in conifers: implications for using selfing as a breeding strategy. Fores Sci 42:102–117Google Scholar
  52. Yasodha R, Sumathi R, Gurumurthi K (2004) Micropropagation for quality propagule production in plantation forestry. Indian J Biotechnol 3:159–170Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany Plant Biotechnology LaboratoryAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations