Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries

  • Aparna Hegde


Care during vaginal birth has vastly improved over the last two decades. However, more than 85 % of women sustain various degrees of perineal trauma during vaginal delivery in the UK. The incidence of severe perineal trauma varies between 0.5 and 3 % in Europe and 6–9 % in the USA. Recent years have witnessed a gradual increase in the incidence with a recent survey in the UK revealing rates as high as 8 %. Though the prevalence of perineal trauma in India is not really known and is impacted by variations in obstetric practice, including episiotomy rates, it is unlikely that the numbers in India are any different. Even more worrying is the fact that sphincter injuries are most often missed clinically at the time of delivery. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review of this very important topic including discussion of the risk factors, diagnosis, and evidence in the management of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS).


Fecal Incontinence Anal Sphincter External Anal Sphincter Internal Anal Sphincter Anal Incontinence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of UrogynecologyUrogynecology and Pelvic Health Institute, (UPHI)Gurgaon, Delhi NCRIndia

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