Role of Biotechnology for Commercial Production of Fruit Crops



India is the second largest producer of fruit plants after China. Mango, banana, citrus, guava, grape, pineapple, and apple are the major fruit plants grown in India. Apart from these, other fruits like papaya, ber, phalsa, sapota, annona, jackfruit, and pomegranate in the tropical and subtropical group and peach, apricot, pear, almond, walnut, and strawberry in the temperate group are also grown in a remarkable area. Propagation in fruit plants through seed is primarily done to raise rootstocks, which are required for grafted plants. Some of the fruit plants like papaya are propagated through seeds, but dormancy, poor germination, low seed viability, and adverse environment conditions are major limiting factors. Advances in biotechnological techniques like plant tissue culture provided new methods for rapid production of high-quality, disease-free, and true-to-type planting material. The technique not only offers a valuable alternative in fruit trees propagation studies but is also useful for virus control and management of genetic resources. Nowadays the range of routine technologies of plant tissue culture has expanded to include somatic embryogenesis, somatic hybridization, virus elimination, in vitro mutagenesis, anther or microspore culture production of haploids, embryo rescue technique or embryo culture, protoplast culture, and somatic fusion. Out of the abovementioned techniques, the most exploited one for mass production of fruit plants is micropropagation. To produce virus-free plants, meristem culture and micrografting techniques have been standardized in different fruit plants. The success varies with the plant species, variety, and the culture environment. Recently, attention has turned to the possible beneficial effects of microorganism’s in vitro plant cultures. It has been observed that mycorrhiza enhances the survival percentage of in vitro-raised plant.


Somatic Embryo Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Somatic Embryogenesis Mother Plant Date Palm 


  1. Aitken-Christie J, Kozai T, Ann Lila Smith M (1995) Automation and environmental control. In: Plant tissue culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  2. Banerjee N, Vuylsteke D, De Langhe E (1986) Meristem tip culture of Musa: histological studies of shoot bud proliferation. In: Withers LA, Anderson PS (eds) Plant tissue culture and its agricultural applications. Butterworths, London, pp 139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bela J, Ueno K, Shetty K (1998) Control of hyperhydricity in anise (Pimpinella anisum) tissue culture by Pseudomonas spp. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 6:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonga JM (1982) Vegetative propagation of Jarrah (Eucalyptus malginata) by organ and tissue culture. Aust For Res 12:121–127Google Scholar
  5. Choudhary D, Kajla S, Duhan JS, Poonia AK, Surekha, Kharb P (2013) Comparative study of various growth regulators on in vitro multiplication of commercial cultivar of banana cv. Grand naine (G-9). Ann Biol 29(3):288–293Google Scholar
  6. Doreswamy R, Rao NKS, Chacko NK (1983) Tissue culture propagation of banana. Sci Hort 18:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Escalant JV, Teisson C (1994) Amplified somatic embryogenesis from male flowers of triploid banana and plantain cultivars (Musa spp.). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 30:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hadiuzzaman S, Habiba, Reza S, Saha ML, Khan MR (2000) Development of a sustainable protocol for contamination free culture of table bananas and identification of associated endogenous bacteria. In: Proceedings of the 4th international plant tissue culture conference, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1st–3rd Nov 2001. Abstracts, p 24Google Scholar
  9. John A, Murray BW (1981) Micropropagation of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). In: AFOCEL (ed) Colloque international sur la culture in vitro des Essences Forestiers. AFOCEL, Fontainebleau, pp 65–70Google Scholar
  10. Keathley DE (1983) Increased growth of hybrid spruce bud cultures on stationary liquid medium. North central tree improvement conference. Proceedings, vol 3, Wooster, Ohio, 17–19 August, pp 150–154Google Scholar
  11. Kim JH, Lee SK, Chun YW (1981) Mass propagation of tree species through in vitro culture. Bud culture of Populus alba x P. glandulosa. For Res Rep Inst Genet Immok Jukchong Yonku-So Yongu Pogo 17:57–63Google Scholar
  12. Kotecha PM, Kadam SS (1998) Minor vegetables. In: Salunkhe DK, Kadam SS (eds) Handbook of vegetable science and technology. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, p 683Google Scholar
  13. Krikorian AD, Irizarry H, Mitra SS, Rivera E (1993) Clonal fidelity and variation in plantain (Musa spp.) regenerated from vegetative stem and floral axis tips in vitro. Ann Bot 71:519–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar R, Sinha K, Kumar S (2005) Micropropagation of banana cv. Malbhog through meristem tip culture in consort with thermotherapy. Phytomorphology 55:17–22Google Scholar
  15. Lovato PE, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Trouvelot A, Gianinazzi S (1996) The state of mycorrhizas and micropropagation. Adv Hort Sci 10:46–52Google Scholar
  16. Madhulata P, Anbalagan M, Jayachandran S, Sakthivel N (2004) Influence of liquid pulse treatment with growth regulators on in vitro propagation of banana (Musa spp. AAA). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 76:189–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Monier C, Bossis E, Chabanet C, Samson R (1998) Different bacteria can enhance the micropropagation response of Cotoneaster lacteus (Rosaceae). J Appl Microbiol 5:1047–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Murashige T (1974) Plant propagation through tissue cultures. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 25:135–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Paek KY, Hahn EJ, Son SH (2001) Application of bioreactors for large scale micropropagation systems of plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pandey RM, Doreswamy R, Sahijram L (1993) Tissue culture propagation of banana. Technical bulletin No. 11. Pub. Pandey RM, IIHR, Hesserghatta, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  22. Rai MK (2001) Current advances in mycorrhization in micropropagation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sahay NS, Varma A (1999) Piriformospora indica: a new biological hardening tool for micropropagated plants. FEMS Microbiol Lett 181:297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sommer HE, Caldas LS (1981) In vitro methods applied to forest trees. In: Thorpe TA (ed) Plant tissue culture: methods and applications in agriculture. Academic, New York, pp 349–358Google Scholar
  25. Sommer HE, Wetzstein HY (1984) Hardwoods. In: Ammirato PV, Evans DA, Sharp WR, Yamada Y (eds) Handbook of plant cell culture, vol 3, Crop species. Macmillan, New York, pp 511–540Google Scholar
  26. Sudhavani AK, Reddy GM (1997) Cost effective propagation of banana. In: Proceedings of the 20th of national symposium of plant tissue culture and molecular biology (PTCMB’97). Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, p 44Google Scholar
  27. Sylvia D (1998) The promise (and obstacles) of AMF inoculation. In: Gianinnazzi S, Schuepp H (eds) Arbuscular mycorrhizas in sustainable soil-plant systems. Report of 1997 activities, Cost Action 821, Iceland, p 152Google Scholar
  28. Thorpe TA, Patel KR (1984) Clonal propagation: adventitious buds. In: Vasil EK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics in plants, vol 1. Academic, New York, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  29. Vuylsteke DR, De Langhe EA (1985) Feasibility of in vitro propagation of bananas and plantains. Trop Agric (Trin) 62:323–328Google Scholar
  30. Williams EG, Maheswaran G (1986) Somatic embryogenesis: factors influencing coordinated behaviour of cells as an embryogenic group. Ann Bot 57:443–462Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kajla
    • 1
  • A. K. Poonia
    • 1
  • P. Kharb
    • 1
  • J. S. Duhan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Science and TechnologyCentre for Plant Biotechnology, HSCSTHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyChaudhary Devi Lal UniversitySirsaIndia

Personalised recommendations