Evaluation of Low-Cost Bio-technology for Community-Based Domestic Wastewater Treatment
Domestic wastewater is the primary source of pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) and putrescible organic substances. Pathogenic substances are excreted in faeces and sewage, potentially causing direct threat to public health. Putrescible organic matter causes another type of threat to water quality. So, wastewater must be treated before its discharge into other water bodies or onto the land. There are a large number of technologies used for wastewater treatment, and these have their own advantages or disadvantages. On the basis of advantages of technology, an important area of wastewater treatment is biological treatment and recently known as biotechnology. Microorganisms are isolated then selected, mutated and genetically engineered for effective bioremediation of wastewater. It can be applied for both in situ and ex situ treatment of contaminated wastewater. Biotechnology-based wastewater treatment involves bioaugmentation, bioremediation, bioreactors and phytoremediation. Wastewater can be treated by aerobic or anaerobic or blending of both the techniques. Considering the fact that environmental biotechnology can be operated in an inexpensive, flexible and also environmentally friendly way, there is a long list of areas where biotechnology-based approaches can and will expand in the near future.
KeywordsChemical Oxygen Demand Wastewater Treatment Anaerobic Digestion Biochemical Oxygen Demand Domestic Wastewater
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