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Molecular Diversity of Rhizobial and Nonrhizobial Bacteria from Nodules of Cool Season Legumes

  • S. S. Dudeja
  • Nidhi
Chapter

Abstract

A specific trait of legumes is the ability to form nodules with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. At present plenty of reports are available regarding the presence of other microorganisms (associated or endophytic) in the nodules apart from nitrogen-fixing bacteria, as nodules are much richer in nutrients as compared to roots. There are 16 genera of bacteria which are able to form nodules in different legumes. These include Rhizobium, Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Phyllobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Methylobacterium, Azorhizobium, Allorhizobium, Aminobacter, Shinella and Devosia belonging to α-proteobacteria and four genera, Burkholderia, Microvirga, Cupriavidus and Herbaspirillum, belonging to β-proteobacteria. About 120 species belonging to these genera form nodules in different legumes. In case of cool season legumes, Mesorhizobium form nodules in chickpea and 30 Mesorhizobium species are known, but M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum, M. temperadae, M. tianshanens, M. sp. (Cicer) and Mesorhizobium muleiense sp. nov. have been reported to form nodules in chickpea. Similarly R. leguminosarum bv. viciae nodulates crop legume pea (Pisum sativum), Vicia spp. and Lens esculenta. The legume root nodules, apart from fixing atmospheric nitrogen, mediate numerous underground interactions with beneficial microbes, such as rhizobia, nonrhizobial bacteria, mycorrhizae and parasitic interactions with other pathogenic microbes. Legume root nodules constitute vast and diverse niches for endophytic organisms, and there is not a single legume nodule devoid of endophyte. The population density of endophytes is highly variable, depending mainly on the bacterial species and host genotypes but also on the host developmental stage, inoculum’s density and environmental conditions. Large number of culturable as well as nonculturable rhizobial and nonrhizobial endophytes in legume nodules has been reported. Commonly rhizobial and nonrhizobial genera existing as endophytic in legume tissues include Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Phyllobacterium, Ochrobactrum, Sphingomonas, Rhizobium, Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Burkholderia, Phyllobacterium and Devosia.

Keywords

Endophytic Bacterium Cicer Arietinum Symbiotic Gene Rhizobial Population Chickpea Cultivar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyMaharishi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia

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