Research Endeavors in Child Psychiatry in India-II

  • Savita Malhotra
  • Natasha Kate


Research in child psychiatry is now being governed by marshaling of evidence with regard to psychobiological processes and their implications in treatment. With the advent of newer technologies, the genetic, neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the development of childhood psychiatric disorders are being increasingly identified. This has helped further our understanding and aids for the management of these disorders. Additionally, psychopharmacological, psychological, behavioral and somatic therapies in children are being increasingly researched, especially in the Western countries, and newer paradigms have been identified. In India, where child psychiatry has not been fully developed as a specialty, research in these various domains has been scattered. Yet, initial insights have so far been encouraging and shall surely pave the way for further investigations. In this chapter, an attempt is made to review broad areas in which significant or substantial research currently available in Indian child and adolescent psychiatry with regard to neurobiology, phenomenology and treatment of child psychiatric disorders.


Autistic Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Disorder Mental Retardation Conduct Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abrahams, B. S., & Geschwind, D. H. (2008). Advances in autism genetics: On the threshold of a new neurobiology. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9(5), 341–355.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal, S. S. (1991). Multicentric study on genetic causes of mental retardation in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 94, 161–169.Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal, V., & Sitholey, P. (2006). A preliminary open trial of olanzapine in pediatric acute and transient psychotic disorders. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 43–46.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aggarwal, S., Bogula, V. R., Mandal, K., Kumar, R., & Phadke, S. R. (2012). Aetiologic spectrum of mental retardation and developmental delay in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 136, 436–444.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aman, M. G., De Smedt, G., Derivan, A., Lyons, B., Findling, R. L., Risperidone Disruptive Behavior Study Group (2002). Doubleblind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1337–1346.Google Scholar
  6. Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (1993). Depressive comorbidity in children and adolescents: empirical, theoretical, and methodological issues. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1779–1791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anil, B. N. (2011). A study of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in patients with ASD using PET scan and to study their neuropsychological correlates. Thesis submitted to Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, December 2011.Google Scholar
  8. Bagadia, V. N., Kotwani, P. N., Dave, K. P., Saraf, K. R., & Shah, L. P. (1972). Fluphenthixol in certain psychiatric illness (a clinical trial). Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 14, 19–23.Google Scholar
  9. Balasubramanian, B., Bhatt, C. V., & Goyel, N. A. (2009). Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders. Indian Journal of Human Genetics, 15, 103–107.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Banaschewski, T., Becker, K., Scherag, S., Franke, B., & Coghill, D. (2010). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An overview. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(3), 237–257.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Banerjee, M., Ram, D., & Das, A. (2007). An open label comparison of aripiprazole versus haloperidol for the treatment of childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(Suppl), 3.Google Scholar
  12. Bhaduri, N., Sarkar, K., Sinha, S., Chattopadhyay, A., & Mukhopadhyay, K. (2010). Study on DBH genetic polymorphisms and plasma activity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients from Eastern India. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 30, 265–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhargava Raman, R. P., Sheshadri, S. P., Janardhan Reddy, Y. C., Girimaji, S. C., Srinath, S., & Raghunandan, V. N. (2007). Is bipolar II disorder misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder in children? Journal of Affective Disorders, 98, 263–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhargava, S. C., & Sethi, S. (2005). Depressive disorder in children. JIACAM, 1, 4.Google Scholar
  15. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., & Benson, R. S. (1998). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(10 Suppl), 63S–83S.Google Scholar
  16. Biswas, P., Malhotra, S., Malhotra, A., & Gupta, N. (2006). Comparative study of neuropsychological correlates in schizophrenia with onset in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 360–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of clinical child psychology, 27(2), 180–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Buitelaar, J. K., vander Gaag, R. J., Cohen-Kettenis, P., & Melman, C. T. (2001). A randomized controlled trial of risperidone in the treatment of aggression in hospitalized adolescents with subaverage cognitive abilities. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 239–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cantwell, D. P., Swanson, J., & Connor, D. F. (1997). Case study: Adverse response to clonidine. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 539–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Castellanos, F. X., & Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(8), 617–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chabane, N., Delorme, R., Millet, B., Mouren, M. C., Leboyer, M., & Pauls, D. (2005). Early-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: A subgroup with a specific clinical and familial pattern? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 46(8), 881–887.Google Scholar
  22. Chamberlain, P., Patterson, G. R., & Bornstein, M. (Eds.). (1995). Handbook of parenting: Vol. 4. Applied and practical parenting (pp. 205–225). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  23. Chang, K. D. (2008). The use of atypical antipsychotics in pediatric bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 4–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chanpattana, W., Kunigiri, G., Kramer, B. A., & Gangadhar, B. N. (2005). Survey of the practice of electroconvulsive therapy in teaching hospitals in India. The Journal of ECT, 21, 100–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chatterjee, A. K., & Khandpur, S. S. (1965). Tofranil in enuresis of children. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 7, 243–245.Google Scholar
  26. Chowdhury, U., Frampton, I., & Heyman, I. (2004). Clinical characteristics of young people referred to an obsessive compulsive disorder clinic in the United Kingdom. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9(3), 395–401.Google Scholar
  27. Coghill, D. (2003). Current issues in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Part 1: Attention-deficit hyperactivity and affective disorders. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9(2), 86–94.Google Scholar
  28. Correll, C. U., Penzner, J. B., Parikh, U. H., Mughal, T., Javed, T., Carbon, M., et al. (2006). Recognizing and monitoring adverse events of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15, 177–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Coskun, M., Zoroglu, S., & Ozturk, M. (2012). Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 6, 36.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Das, M., Das Bhowmik, A., Bhaduri, N., Sarkar, K., Ghosh, P., Sinha, S., et al. (2011). Role of gene-gene/gene-environment interaction in the etiology of eastern Indian ADHD probands. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 35(2), 577–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Das, M., Das Bhowmik, A., Sinha, S., Chattopadhyay, A., Chaudhuri, K., Singh, M., et al. (2006). MAOA Promoter Polymorphism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Indian Children. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B, 141B, 637–642.Google Scholar
  32. Dhossche, D., Reti, I. M., & Wachtel, L. E. (2009). Catatonia and Autism: A historical review, with implications for electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of ECT, 25, 19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dogra, A., & Veeraraghavan, V. (1994). A study of psychological intervention of children with aggressive conduct disorder. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 28–32.Google Scholar
  34. Domino, M. E., & Swartz, M. S. (2008). Who are the new users of antipsychotic medications? Psychiatric Services, 59, 507–514.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Doongaji, D. R., Bagadia, V. N., & Vahia, N. S. (1961). Clinical experience with prothipendyl hydrochloride (dominal)—A new tranquiliser. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 3, 228–234.Google Scholar
  36. Dutta, S., Das, S., Guhathakurta, S., Sen, B., Sinha, S., Chatterjee, A., et al. (2007). Glutamate receptor 6 gene (GluR6 or GRIK2) polymorphisms in the Indian population: A genetic association study on autism spectrum disorder. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 27, 1035–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Eggers, C., & Bunk, D. (1997). The long-term course of childhood-onset schizophrenia: A 42-year follow up. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 105–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2002). Intensive behavioral treatment at school for 4- to 7-year-old children with autism: A 1-year comparison controlled study. Behavior Modification, 26(1), 49–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Favaa, L., Vicarib, S., Valeri, G., D’Elia, L., Arimad, S., & Strauss, K. (2012). Intensive Behavioral Intervention for school-aged children with autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)—A Comprehensive Behavioral Model. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 1273–1288.Google Scholar
  40. Findling, R. L., Robb, A., Nyilas, M., Forbes, R. A., Jin, N., Ivanova, S., et al. (2008). A multiple-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral aripiprazole for treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1432–1441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fleming, J., & Offord, D. (1990). Epidemiology of childhood depressive disorders: A critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 571–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fryns, J. P. (1984). The fragile X syndrome: A study of 83 families. Clinical Genetics, 26, 497–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Agranat, A., Cradock, K., Hagermoser, L., et al. (2001). Developmental aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder: Findings in children, adolescents, and adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189(7), 471–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Griffin, S., Jones, J., & Lefkowitz, T. R. (1996). Comorbidity of juvenile obsessive–compulsive disorder with disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(12), 1637–1646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Jones, J., Park, K., Schwartz, S., Shapiro, S., et al. (1998). Is juvenile obsessive–compulsive disorder a developmental subtype of the disorder? A review of the pediatric literature. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(4), 420–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Geller, B., & Luby, J. (1997). Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1168–1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Green, G. (2001). Behavior analytic instruction for learners with autism advances in stimulus control technology. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(2), 72–85.Google Scholar
  48. Green, W. H., Padron-Gayol, M., Hardesty, A. S., & Bassiri, M. (1992). Schizophrenia with childhood onset: a phenomenological study of 38 cases. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 968–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Griesemer, D. A., Kellner, C. H., Beale, M. D., et al. (1997). Electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of intractable seizures. Initial findings in two children. Neurology, 49, 1389–1392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Griffith, G. M., Fletcher, R., & Hastings, R. P. (2012). A national UK census of Applied Behavior Analysis school provision for children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 798–805.Google Scholar
  51. Grover, S., Malhotra, S., Bharadwaj, R., Subodh, B. N., & Kumar, S. (2009). Delirium in children and adolescents. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 39, 179–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Grover, S., Malhotra, S., Varma, S., Chakrabarti, S., Avasthi, A., & Mattoo, S. K. (2013). Electroconvulsive therapy in adolescents: A retrospective study from north India. Journal of ECT, 29, 122–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gupta, S. K., & Ratnam, B. V. (2009). Cerebral Perfusion Abnormalities in Children with Autism and Mental Retardation: A Segmental Quantitative SPECT Study. Indian Pediatr, 46, 161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hanna, G. L. (1995). Demographic and clinical features of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(1), 19–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Harris, S. L., & Handleman, J. S. (2000). Age and IQ at intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: A four- to six-year follow-up. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(2), 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hazell, P., & Mirzaie, M. (2013). Tricyclic drugs for depression in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6, CD002317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hendren, R. L., De Backer, I., & Pandina, G. J. (2000). Review of neuroimaging studies of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders from the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 815–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jain, U., Verma, I. C., & Kapoor, A. K. (1998). Prevalence of fragile X(A) syndrome in mentally retarded children at a genetics referral centre in Delhi, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 108, 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jairam, R., Srinath, S., Girimaji, S. C., & Seshadri, S. P. (2004). A prospective 4–5 year follow-up of juvenile onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 6, 386–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jaisoorya, T. S., Janardhan Reddy, Y. C., & Srinath, S. (2003). Is juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder a developmental subtype of the disorder?—Findings from an Indian study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 290–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jans, T., Wewetzer, C., Klampfl, K., Schulz, E., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Remschmidt, H., et al. (2007). Phenomenology and co-morbidity of childhood onset obsessive compulsive disorder. Zeitschrift fur Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 35(1), 41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Juneja, M., Mukherjee, S., Sharma, S., Jain, R., Das, B., & Sabu, P. (2012). Evaluation of a parent-based behavioral intervention program for children with autism in a low-resource setting. Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences, 7, 16–18.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kalverdijk, L., Tobi, H., van den Berg, P., Buiskool, J., Wagenaar, L., Minderaa, R., et al. (2008). Use of antipsychotic drugs among Dutch youths between 1997 and 2005. Psychiatric Services, 59(5), 554–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaplan, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2009). Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (9th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  65. Karanth, P., Shaista, S., & Srikanth, N. (2010). Efficacy of communication DEALL—An indigenous early intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 957–962.Google Scholar
  66. Kashani, J. H., & Carlson, G. A. (1987). Seriously depressed preschoolers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 348–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kimura, S., Asai, S., Wakeno, M., & Aoki, N. (1978). On early and mid-onset schizophrenia, Part 1: Phenomenological aspects. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, 32, 41–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kolvin, I. (1971). Studies in the childhood psychoses. I. Diagnostic criteria and classification. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 381–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kowatch, R. A., Emslie, G. J., Wilkaitis, J., Dingle, A. D. (2005). Mood disorders, In S. B. Sexson (Ed.), Child and adolescent psychiatry (pp. 132–153). Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  70. Krausz, M., & Müller-Thomsen, T. (1993). Schizophrenia with onset in adolescence: An 11-year follow up. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 831–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Krisanaprakornkit, T., Ngamjarus, C., Witoonchart, C., & Piyavhatkul, N. (2010). Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 6, CD006507.Google Scholar
  72. Krishnakumar, P., & Geeta, M. G. (2006). Clinical profile of depressive disorder in children. Indian Pediatrics, 43, 521–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kryzhanovskaya, L., Schultz, S. C., McDougle, C., Frazier, J., Dittman, R., Robertson-Plouch, C., et al. (2009). Olanzapine versus placebo in adolescents with schizophrenia: A 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 60–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kumra, S., Kranzler, H., Gerbino-Rosen, G., Kester, H. M., DeThomas, C., Kafantaris, V., et al. (2008a). Clozapine and “high-dose” olanzapine in refractory early-onset schizophrenia: A 12-week randomized and double-blind comparison. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 524–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kumra, S., Oberstar, J. V., Sikich, L., Findling, R. L., McClellan, J. M., Vinogradov, S., et al. (2008b). Efficacy and tolerability of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 60–71.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lal, R. (2010). Effect of alternative and augmentative communication on language and social behavior of children with autism. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(3), 119–125.Google Scholar
  77. LeFever, G. B., Dawson, K. V., & Morrow, A. L. (1999). The extent of drug therapy for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder among children in public schools. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1359–1364.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lenane, M. C., Swedo, S. E., Leonard, H. L., Pauls, D., Sceery, W., & Rapoport, J. L. (1990). Psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives of children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(3), 407–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Leonard, H. L., Lenane, M. C., Swedo, S. E., Rettew, D. C., Gershon, E. S., & Rapoport, J. L. (1992). Tics and Tourette’s disorder: A 2- to 7-year follow up of 54 obsessive–compulsive children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149(9), 1244–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A. K., Mrakotsky, C., et al. (2003). The clinical picture of depression in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 340–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Madhavan, T., & Narayan, J. (1991). Consanguinity and mental retardation. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 35, 133–139.Google Scholar
  82. Mahendru, B. K., Gupta, S. C., Agarwal, A. K., & Sethi, B. B. (1970). Imipramine as an effective tool in the management of behavioural disorders in children. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 238–243.Google Scholar
  83. Malhotra, S., Biswas, P., Sharan, P., & Grover, S. (2007). Characteristics of patients visiting the child and adolescent psychiatric clinic: A 26-year study from North India. Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 3, 53–60.Google Scholar
  84. Malhotra, S., Gupta, N., & Singh, G. (2000). Clozapine in childhood-onset schizophrenia: A report of five cases. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 403–410.Google Scholar
  85. Malhotra, S., Chakrabarti, S., Shah, R., Gupta, G., Mehta, A., Nithya, B. et al. (2014). Development of a novel diagnostic system for a telepsychiatry application: A pilot study. BMC Research Notes, 7, 508. doi: 10.1186/1756-1500-7-508.
  86. Malhotra, S., & Santosh, P. J. (1996). Loading dose imipramine—New approach to pharmacotherapy of melancholic depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 30, 51–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Malhotra, S., & Santosh, P. J. (1998). An open clinical trial of buspirone in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(4), 364–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Manjunatha, K. R., Narayanan, H. S., Rao, B. S. S. R., Srinath, S., & Girimaji, S. R. (1989). Cryptogenetic investigations in autistic children: A preliminary study on the detection of fragile X chromosome. NIMHANS Journal, 7, 163–167.Google Scholar
  89. Masi, G., Millepiedi, S., Mucci, M., Bertini, N., Milantoni, L., & Arcangeli, F. (2005). A naturalistic study of referred children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(7), 673–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Masi, G., Millepiedi, S., Mucci, M., Bertini, N., Pfanner, C., & Arcangeli, F. (2006). Cormorbidity of obsessive–compulsive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in referred children and adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47, 42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mehta, S., Mehta, V., Mehta, S., Shah, D., Motiwala, A., Vardhan, J., et al. (2011). Multimodal behavior program for ADHD incorporating yoga and implemented by high school volunteers: A pilot study. ISRN Pediatr, 2011, 780745.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mehta, S., Shah, D., Shah, K., Mehta, S., Mehta, N., Mehta, V., et al. (2012). Peer-mediated multimodal intervention program for the treatment of children with ADHD in India: One-year follow up. ISRN Pediatric, 2012, 419168.Google Scholar
  93. Minshew, N. J., & Williams, D. L. (2007). The new neurobiology of autism: Cortex, connectivity, and neuronal organization. Archives of Neurology, 64(7), 945.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Monda, J. M., & Husmann, D. A. (1995). Primary nocturnal enuresis: A comparison among observation, imipramine, desmopressin acetate and bed-wetting alarm systems. Journal of Urology, 154, 745–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Nagaraj, R., Singhi, P., & Malhi, P. (2006). Risperidone in children with autism: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Journal of Child Neurology, 21, 450–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Narayan, M., Srinath, S., Anderson, G. M., & Meundi, D. B. (1993). Cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in autism. Biological Psychiatry, 33, 630–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Narayanan, H. S. (1981). A study of the prevalence of mental retardation in Southern India. International Journal of Mental Health, 10, 28–36.Google Scholar
  98. Nestadt, G., Samuels, J., Riddle, M., Bienvenu, O. J., Liang, K. Y., LaBuda, M., et al. (2000). A family study of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 358–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Olfson, M., Marcus, S., & Shaffer, D. (2006). Antidepressant drug therapy and suicide in severely depressed children and adults a case-control study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(8), 865–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pauls, D., Alsobrook, J. P., Goodman, W. K., Rasmussen, S. A., & Leckman, J. F. (1995). A family study of obsessive–compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(1), 76–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Pelham, W. E, Jr, Wheeler, T., & Chronis, A. (1998). Empirically supported psychosocial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of clinical child psychology, 27(2), 190–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Popper, C. W., & Zimnitzky, B. (1995). Sudden death putatively related to desipramine treatment in youth: A fifth case and a review of speculative mechanisms. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 5(4), 283–300.Google Scholar
  103. Radhakrishna, S., Nagarathna, R., & Nagendra, H. R. (2010). Integrated approach to yoga therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 1, 120–124.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rajeev, J., Srinath, S., Girimaji, S., Seshadri, S. P., & Singh, P. (2004). A systematic chart review of the naturalistic course and treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder in a child and adolescent psychiatry center. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 148–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rajeev, J., Srinath, S., Reddy, Y. C., Shashikiran, M. G., Girimaji, S. C., Seshadri, S. P., et al. (2003). The index manic episode in juvenile-onset bipolar disorder: The pattern of recovery. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 52–55.Google Scholar
  106. Rani, F., Murray, M. L., Byrne, P. J., & Wong, I. C. (2008). Epidemiologic features of antipsychotic prescribing to children and adolescents in primary care in the United Kingdom. Pediatrics, 121(5), 1002–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rapport, M. D., Loo, S., Issacs, P., Goya, S., Denney, C., & Scanlan, S. (1996). Methylphenidate and attentional training: Comparative effects on behavior and neurocognitive performance in twin girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Modification, 20, 428–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Reddy, Y. C., Girimaji, S., & Srinath, S. (1997). Clinical profile of mania in children and adolescents from the Indian subcontinent. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 841–846.Google Scholar
  109. Reddy, Y. C., Reddy, P. S., Srinath, S., Khanna, S., Sheshadri, S. P., & Girimaji, S. C. (2000). Comorbidity in juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder: A report from India. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 274–278.Google Scholar
  110. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 314–321.Google Scholar
  111. Rettew, D. C., Swedo, S. E., Leonard, H. L., Lenane, M. C., & Rapoport, J. L. (1992). Obsessions and compulsions across time in 79 children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 1050–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rey, J. M., & Walter, G. (1997). Half a century of ECT use in young people. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 595–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rosario-Campos, M. C., Leckman, J. F., Curi, M., Quatrano, S., Katsovitch, L., Miguel, E. C., et al. (2005). A family study of early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder. American Journal of Genetics, 136B, 92–97.Google Scholar
  114. Rutter, M. (1972). Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 315–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Sagar, R., Pattanayak, R. D., & Mehta, M. (2012). Clinical profile of mood disorders in children. Indian Pediatrics, 49, 21–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Schreppers-Tijdink, G. A., Curfs, L. M., Wiegers, A., Kleczkowska, A., & Fryns, J. P. (1988). A systematic cytogenetic study of a population of 1170 mentally retarded and/or behaviourally disturbed patients including fragile X-screening. The Hondsberg experience. Journal De Genetique Humaine, 36, 425–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Selvi, R., Vineeta, N., & Paul, S. F. D. (2010). Cytogenetics in Autism. Sri Ramachandra Journal of Medicine, 3, 5–8.Google Scholar
  118. Sharma, I., Giri, D., Dutta, A., Mazumder, P., Anuradha (2005). Clinical profile of childhood onset schizophrenia in India. Journal of Indian Association of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 1(3), 6. Google Scholar
  119. Shaw, P., Sporn, A., Gogtay, N., Overman, G. P., Greenstein, D., Gochman, P., et al. (2006). Childhood-onset schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized clozapine–olanzapine comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 721–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sheinkopf, S. J., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home based behavioral treatment of young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(1), 15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sikich, L. (2008). Efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(Suppl. 4), 21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Silverman, W. K., Kurtines, W. M., Ginsburg, G. S., Weems, C. F., Lumpkin, P. W., & Carmichael, D. H. (1999). Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behavioral therapy: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(6), 995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Singhi, P., Mittal, B. R., Nagaraj, R., & Malhi, P. (2008). Single photon emission tomography in children with autism. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 6, 221–225.Google Scholar
  124. Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105(4), 269–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Snyder, R., Turgay, A., Aman, M., Binder, C., Fisman, S., Carroll, A., Risperidone Conduct Study Group (2002). Effects of risperidone on conduct and disruptive behavior disorders in children with subaverage IQs. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1026–1036.Google Scholar
  126. Srinath, S., Janardhan Reddy, Y. C., Girimaji, S. R., Seshadri, S. P., & Subbakrishna, D. K. (1998). A prospective study of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents from India. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98, 437–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Srivastava, V. K., Sitholey, P., Dwivedi, C. M., & Tripathi, S. K. (1988). Influence of socio-cultural factors on delusions: A study on children and adolescents. Child Psychiatry Quarterly, 21, 121–128.Google Scholar
  128. Swedo, S. E., Rapoport, J. L., Leonard, H. L., Lenane, M., & Cheslow, D. (1989). Obsessive compulsive disorders in children and adolescents: Clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 335–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Thakur, A., Jagadheesan, K., & Sinha, V. K. (2003). Psychopathological dimensions in childhood and adolescent psychoses: A confirmatory factor analytical study. Psychopathology, 36, 190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Tharoor, H., Kar, N., & Jagdisha, S. (2002). Profile of childhood depression in a south Indian clinic population. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, s9.Google Scholar
  131. Van Karnebeek, C. D. M., Scheper, F. Y., Abeling, N. G., et al. (2002a). Aetiology of mental retardation or borderline cognitive delay in 281 children referred to a tertiary care center: A prospective study. In C. D. M. Van Karnebeek (Ed.), Mental retardation: Diagnostic studies on aetiology [doctoral thesis] (pp. 75–108). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Department of Pediatrics/Emma Children’s Hospital and Department of Clinical Genetics, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  132. Van Karnebeek, C. D., Jansweijer, M. C., Leenders, A. G., Offringa, M., & Hennekam, R. C. (2005). Diagnostic investigations in individuals with mental retardation: A systematic literature review of their usefulness. European Journal of Human Genetics, 13, 6–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Van Karnebeek, C. D., Koevoets, C., Sluijter, S., et al. (2002b). Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: The Amsterdam experience. Journal of Medical Genetics, 39, 546–553.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Vitiello, B., Severe, J. B., Greenhill, L. L., Arnold, L. E., Abikoff, H. B., Bukstein, O. G., et al. (2001). Methylphenidate dosage for children with ADHD over time under controlled conditions: Lessons from the MTA. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 188–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Walter, G., & Rey, J. M. (1997). An Epidemiological Study of the Use of ECT in Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 809–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Weiss, M. J. (1999). Differential rates of skill acquisition and outcomes of early intensive behavioral intervention for autism. Behavioral Interventions, 14(1), 3–22.Google Scholar
  138. Yang, P. C., Liu, C. Y., Chiang, S. Q., Chen, J. Y., & Lin, T. S. (1995). Comparison of adult manifestations of schizophrenia with onset before and after 15 years of age. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 91, 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Zaw, F. K. K., Bates, G. D. L., Murali, V., & Benthan, P. (1999). Catatonia, autism, and ECT. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 843–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Zito, J. M., Safer, D. J., dosReis, S. et al. (2003). Psychotropic practice patterns for youth: A 10-year perspective. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157, 17–25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations