Agroforestry as a Strategy for Livelihood Security in the Rainfed Areas: Experience and Expectations

  • G. R. Korwar
  • J. V. N. S. Prasad
  • G. Rajeshwara Rao
  • G. Venkatesh
  • G. Pratibha
  • B. Venkateswarlu
Part of the Advances in Agroforestry book series (ADAG, volume 10)


Agroforestry in rainfed areas increases livelihood security through simultaneous production of food, fodder, and firewood, and an increase in total productivity per unit area of land. Management of trees in conjunction with crops in rainfed areas minimizes the risk associated with stress period through diversified components and through efficient utilization of limited natural resources. The major objective of agroforestry in rainfed areas is gainful utilization of off-season precipitation, income stabilization, soil and water conservation, insurance against weather aberrations and mitigation of climate change. In India, agroforestry practices in rainfed agriculture have been used to manage scattered trees on farm lands, trees on farm bunds, wood lots as block plantations, trees on range lands, and vegetative live hedges for ecological, social, and economic functions. To enhance rural livelihood security among the dryland farmers, several improved agroforestry systems, commercial plantations and biofuels and bioenergy systems came into being for adoption. Agroforestry plantation-based success stories reveal livelihood security of small, marginal, and landless farmers. Steps to promote basic and promotional agroforestry research in dryland agriculture and appropriate policy responses with extension outreach may potentially deliver better results in rainfed agriculture. Rainfed agroforestry for livelihood security reflects the positive way in utilization of rainfed area resources.


Agroforestry System Sole Crop Silvopastoral System Arable Crop Rainfed Condition 


  1. Agarwal A, Dureja SN, Garg SC (1985) Some observations on growth characteristics and pulping qualities of Leucaena leucocephala in Nepanagar. J Trop For 1:285–301Google Scholar
  2. Ali MS, Chaturvedi OP (2008) Pattern and constraints of adoption of agroforestry systems in north Bihar. J Trop For 24(1/2):10–15Google Scholar
  3. Ali MS, Das DK, Chakraborty AK, Sattar A (2006) Performance of intercrops under bamboo-based agroforestry system in Bihar. J Agro Meteorol 8(2):266–268Google Scholar
  4. Banerjee H, Dhara PK, Mazumdar D (2009) Bamboo (Bambusa spp) based agroforestry systems under rainfed upland ecosystem. J Crop Weed 5:288–292Google Scholar
  5. Bhatia CL (1984) Eucalyptus in India––Its status and research needs. Indian Forester 110:91–96Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan F (1807) A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar, vol II. Blumar & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaturvedi AN (1989) Silvicultural requirements of Eucalyptus for small farms. In: Withington D, MacDicken KG, Sastry CB, Adams NR (eds) Multipurpose tree species for small farm use, International Institute for Agricultural Development. Winrock, USA, p 282Google Scholar
  8. COMPETE (2009) Best practices and failures from Asia and Latin America (Report on India). Second Periodic Activity Report (01.01.2008−31.12.2008)Google Scholar
  9. CRIDA (1993, 1996) Annual Reports. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  10. CRIDA (2005) National Agricultural Technology Project- Rainfed Agro-ecosystem production system: Completion Report 1994−2004. Agroecosystem Directorate, CRIDA, Hyderabad, p 202Google Scholar
  11. CRIDA (2007) Perspective Plan, Vision 2025. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, Andhra PradeshGoogle Scholar
  12. CRIDA (1993-2010) Annual Reports. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Dagar JC (1995) Agroforestry systems for Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Int Tree Crops J 8:107–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Das T, Das AK (2005) Inventorying plant diversity in home gardens: A case study of Barak Valley, Assam, North-East India. Curr Sci 89:155–163Google Scholar
  15. Dastagir G, Suresh KK (1991) Forage production under silvipastoral system. J Trop For 7:206–209Google Scholar
  16. Datta A, Das PK (1997) Evaluation of nodulation and its impact on biomass in some agroforestry tree species. Range Manag Agrofor 18(1):91–97Google Scholar
  17. Deb R (1988) The growth and aerial biomass production of Albizia procera under silvipastoral system. In: Sing P and Pathak (eds) Rangelands: Resources and Management. IGFRI Jhansi, pp 338−342Google Scholar
  18. Devaranavadgi SB, Wali SY, Patil SB, Jambagi MB, Kambrekar DN (2010) Survey of traditional agroforestry systems practiced in northern dry tract of Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 23(2):277–281Google Scholar
  19. Divakara BN, Upadhyaya HD, Wani SP, Gowda CL (2009) Biology and Genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L: A review. Appl Energy 86(11):2273–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dutt AK, Jamwal U (1988) Leucaena growth in India. Indian J For 11:190–198Google Scholar
  21. FAI (1994) Fertilizer Statistics (1993-94) III-21 to IV-86. Fertilizer Association of India, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  22. FAOSTAT (2006)
  23. Gill AS (1995) Agri-silvi-cultural/Agri-silvi-horticultural studies. Research Highlights (1989−1994), NRCAF, JhansiGoogle Scholar
  24. Gill AS (2009) Performance of trees in the semiarid subtropics for production of chick pea in rain fed conditions. Indian Forester 135(6):831–837Google Scholar
  25. Ginwal HS, Phartyal SS, Rawat PS, Srivastava RL (2005) Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of Jatropha curcas Linn., in Central India. Silvae Genet 54:76–80Google Scholar
  26. GoI (2006) Report of the Working Group on Animal Husbandry and Dairying, 11th Five Year Plan (2007−2012), Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, India, p 232Google Scholar
  27. Gupta MK, Sharma SD, Jha MN, Pandey Rajiv (2006) Response of organic and chemical fertilizers to the establishment and growth of eucalyptus in sodic land of Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian Forester 132:726−736Google Scholar
  28. Hegde NG, Withington D, MacDicken KG, Sastry CB, Adams NR (1988) Multipurpose trees for small farmers in India. In: Mishra PJ, Dash SK, Sahu D (eds) Establishment pattern of live hedge species in North-Eastern Ghat of Orissa. Indian J of Soil Conserv 28:86−87Google Scholar
  29. Ilorkar VM, Suroshe SB, Jiotode DJ (2011) Agroforestry interventions across different agro-climatic zones in Maharashtra, India. Indian J Forestry 34(1):105–109Google Scholar
  30. IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate Change 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Jambulingam R, Fernandes ECM (1986) Multipurpose trees and shrubs in Tamil Nadu State (India). Agrofor Syst 4:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jha LK, Lalnunmawia F (2003) Agroforestry with bamboo and ginger to rehabilitate degraded areas in North East India. J Bamboo Rattan 2(2):103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Joseph B, Rao LGG, Sreemannarayana B (1999) Effect of pruning on yield of sunflower in Albizzia lebbeck based agri-silvi system. Indian J Agrofor 1(2):129–133Google Scholar
  34. Joshi PN, Kumar V, Koladiya M, Patel YS, Karthik T (2009) Local perceptions of grassland change and priorities for conservation of natural resources of Banni, Gujarat, India. Front Biol 4(4):549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kang BT, Wilson GF (1981) The development of alley cropping as a promising agroforestry technology. In: Agroforestry. A Decade of Development. pp 227−243Google Scholar
  36. Kanwar JS (1999) Need for future outlook and mandate for dryland agriculture in India. In: Singh HP, Ramakrishna YS, Sharma KL, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Fifty Years of Dryland Agriculture Research in India. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, India, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  37. Kaushik N, Kumar K, Kumar S, Roy S (2007) Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) accessions. Biomass Bioenergy 31:497–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Korwar GR (1992) Influence of cutting height of Leucaena hedgerows on alley cropped sorghum and pearl millet. Indian J Dryland Agric Res Dev 7:57–60Google Scholar
  39. Korwar GR (1999) Alternate land use systems: trees and bushes. In: Singh HP, Ramakrishna YS, Sharma KL, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Fifty Years of Dryland Agriculture Research in India. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, India, pp 507–512Google Scholar
  40. Korwar GR, Pratibha G (1999) Performance of short duration pulses with African winter-thorn (Faidherbia albida) in semi-arid regions. Indian J Agric Sci 69(8):560–562Google Scholar
  41. Korwar GR, Pratibha G, Ravi V, Palani Kumar D (2006) Performance of castor (Ricinus communis) and green gram (Vigna radiata) in agroforestry systems in semi-arid tropics. Indian J Agron 51(2):112–115Google Scholar
  42. Korwar GR, Radder GD (1994) Influence of root pruning and cutting interval of Leucaena hedgerows on performance of alley cropped rabi sorghum. Agrofor Syst 25:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kulkarni HD (2008) Private farmer and private industry partnerships for industrial wood production: a case study. Int For Rev 10:147–155Google Scholar
  44. Kumar A, Natarajan S, Biradar NB, Trivedi BK (2011) Evolution of sedentary pastoralism in south India: case study of the Kangayam grassland. Pastoralism Res Policy Pract 1:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumar BM (1997) Bamboos in the Home gardens of Kerala - a shrinking resource base. J Non Timber For Prod 4:156–159Google Scholar
  46. Kumar BM, Rajesh G, Sudheesh KG (2005) Aboveground biomass production and nutrient uptake of thorny bamboo [Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss] in the homegardens of Thrissur Kerala. J Trop Agric 43:51–56Google Scholar
  47. Kumar P, Joshi PK, Birthal PS (2009) Demand projections for food grains in India. Agric Econ Res Rev 22(2):237–243Google Scholar
  48. Kushalappa KA (1980) Status of subabul in Karnataka. In: Proceedings of seminar on Ipil–Ipil, held in Gandhinagar, December 29–30, 1980. pp 84–85Google Scholar
  49. Kushalappa KA (1985) Productivity and Nutrient Recycling in Mysore Gum Plantations near Bangalore. Ph.D. Thesis, Mysore University, p 178Google Scholar
  50. Lal R (1994) Water management in various crop production systems related to soil tillage. Soil Tillage Res 30:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Madiwalar SL, Channabasappa KS, Deshmukh RC (2007) Survey and documentation of agroforestry models in Bidar, Gulbarga and Raichur districts. Karnataka J Agric Sci 20(1):93–95Google Scholar
  52. Malik RS, Dutt D, Tyagi CH, Jindal AK, Lakharia LK (2004) Morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics of Leucaena leucocephala and its impact on pulp and paper making properties. J Sci Ind Res 63:125Google Scholar
  53. Marshall JK (1967) The effect of shelter on the productivity of grasslands and field crops. Field Crop Abstr 20:l−14Google Scholar
  54. Maslekar AR (1984) Biomass production in rainfed and irrigated subabul plantations. Indian Forester 110:749–753Google Scholar
  55. Mishra PN, Tewari SK, Dheer S, Katiyar RS, Singh D (1995) Effect of coppicing height on the regeneration and productivity of certain firewood shrubs in alkaline soils of North Indian plains. Biomass Bioenergy 9:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mittal SP, Singh P (1983) Studies on intercropping of field crops with fodder crops of subabul under rainfed conditions annual report. Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  57. Mullen BF, Gutteridge RC (2002) Wood and biomass production of Leucaena in sub-tropical Australia. Agrofor Syst 55:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nair PKR (1993) An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nair PKR, Dagar JC (1991) An approach to developing methodologies for evaluating agroforestry systems in India. Agrofor Syst 16:55–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. NRAA (2008) Harmonization of wastelands/degraded lands datasets of India. Published by National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. NASC Complex, DP Shastri Marg, New Delhi, p 5Google Scholar
  61. NRAA (2012) Prioritization of Rainfed Areas in India, Study Report 4. NRAA, India, p 100Google Scholar
  62. NSSO (1992) Land and Livestock Holding Survey, Report on Operational Land Holdings in India: Salient Features Round 48th, Report No. 407, National Sample Survey Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  63. NSSO (2006) Level and Pattern of Consumer Expenditure (2004-05). National Sample Survey Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  64. NWDB (1987) Cost Models for Establishment of Silvi-pasture Forms in Different Regions. Monograph, National Wasteland Development Board (NWDB), New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  65. Osman M, Emminham WH, Sharrow SH (1998) Growth and yield of sorghum or cowpea in an agrisilviculture system in semiarid India. Agrofor Syst 42(1):91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Oswin DS (2004) A Review - Wetland ecosystems and coastal habitat diversity in Gujarat. India J Coastal Dev 7(2):49–64Google Scholar
  67. Pathak PS (1991) Economic analysis of silvipastoral systems. Colloquium on Forestry Economics Research in Asia. Faculty of Forestry Kasetsart University, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  68. Pathak PS (2002) Common pool degraded lands: technological and institutional options. In: Marothia DK (ed) Institutionalizing Common Pool Resources. Concept Publishing Co., India, pp 402–433Google Scholar
  69. Pathak PS, Gupta SK, Singh P (1995) IGFRI approaches: Rehabilitation of degraded lands. Bulletin Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  70. Pathak PS, Pateria HM, Solanki KR (2000) Agroforestry systems in India - A diagnosis and design approach. All India Coordinated Research Project on Agroforestry, ICAR, National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  71. Pathak PS, Solanki KR (2002) Agroforestry Technologies for Different Agro-climatic Regions of India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), p 41Google Scholar
  72. Patil EN, Bonde RD, Salunkhe CD, Borse RH (1999) Effect of fruit and fodder trees on rainfed arable crops. Indian J Dryland Agric Res Dev 14(2):81–83Google Scholar
  73. Patil VD, Sarnikar PN, Adsul PB, Thengal PD (2004) Profile studies, organic matter build-up and nutritional status of soil under bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) based agroforestry system. J Soils Crops 14(1):31–35Google Scholar
  74. Prasad JVNS, Korwar GR, Rao KV, Mandal UK, Rama Rao CA, Rao GR, Venkateswarlu B, Rao SN, Kulkarni HD, Rao MR (2010a) Tree row spacing affected agronomic and economic performance of Eucalyptus -based agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Agrof Syst 78(3):253−267Google Scholar
  75. Prasad JVNS, Korwar GR, Rao KV Srinivas K, Rama Rao CA, Srinivasa Rao Ch, Venkateswarlu B, Rao SN, Kulkarni HD (2010b) Effect of modification of tree density and geometry on intercrop yields and economic returns in Leucaena based agroforestry systems for wood production in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Exp Agric 46(2):155−172Google Scholar
  76. Prasad JVNS, Korwar GR, Rao KV, Mandal UK, Rao GR, Srinivas I, Venkateswarlu B, Rao SN (2011a) Optimum stand density of Leucaena leucocephala for wood production in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Biomass Bioenergy 35:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Prasad JVNS, Korwar GR, Rao KV, Srinivas K, Srinivasa Rao Ch, Pedababu B, Venkateswarlu B, Rao SN, Kulkarni HD (2011b) On-farm evaluation of two fast growing tree species for biomass production for industrial use. New Forests 42:51−61Google Scholar
  78. Prasad R, Saha B, Sarma JS, Agnihotri Y (1997) Development of hortipastoral land use system in degraded land. Annual Report. Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute, India, p 44Google Scholar
  79. Qureshi LM, Desai BP (1981) State experience papers- Maharashtra. In: Kaul RN, Gogate MG, Mathur NK (eds) Leucaena leucocephala in India. In: Proceedings of National Seminar, held in Urulikanchan (Maharashtra), June 26−27, 1981, pp 97−98Google Scholar
  80. Rai MP, Pathak PS, Deb Roy R (1983) Biomass production of Sesbania grandiflora in different habitats. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 9:21−27Google Scholar
  81. Rai P, Deb Roy R, Verma NC, Rao GR (1994) Performance of small ruminants on silvipasture and natural grassland under grazing condition. In: Singh P, Pathak PS, Roy MM (eds) Agroforestry Systems for Degraded Lands. Oxford and IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 773−779Google Scholar
  82. Rai P, Deb Roy R, Rao GR (1995) Evaluation of multipurpose tree species in rangelands under semi-arid condition of Uttar Pradesh. Range Manag Agrofor 16:103−113Google Scholar
  83. Rai P, Solanki KR, Rao GR (1999) Silvipasture research in India - a review. Indian J Agrofor 1:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rai P, Yadav RS, Solanki KR, Rao GR, Singh R (2001) Growth and pruned production of multipurpose tree species in silvo-pastoral systems on degraded lands in semi-arid region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Forests Trees Livelihoods 11:347–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ramakrishna YS, Vijaya Kumar P, Ramana Rao BV (1999) Crop-Weather Relationship Studies in Dryland Agriculture. In: Singh HP, Ramakrishna YS, Sharma KL, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Fifty Years of Dryland Agriculture Research in India. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, India, pp 211–226Google Scholar
  86. Ram N, Gill AS (1995) Effect of Leucaena and intercrop on anola (Emblica officinalis) under rainfed conditions. Van Anusnadhan 12(ii):51−55Google Scholar
  87. Rao GR, Prasad YG, Prabhakar M, Srinivas I, Rao KV, Korwar GR, Venkateswarlu B, Shankar AK, Ravindra Chary G, Reddy NN (2010) Biofuel Crops for Dryland Cultivation and Processing Issues. CRIDA, p 38Google Scholar
  88. Rao JV, Osman M (1994) Studies on silvipastoral systems in non-arable dry lands, In: Singh P, Pathak PS, Roy MM (eds) Agroforestry Systems for Degraded Lands. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, pp 755−760Google Scholar
  89. Rao KPC, Bantilan MCS, Singh K, Subrahmanyam S, Deshingkar P, Rao P. Parthasarathy, Shiferaw B (2005) Overcoming Poverty in Rural India: Focus on Rainfed Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Hyderabad, p 96Google Scholar
  90. Rao MR, Ong CK, Pathak P, Sharma MM (1991) Productivity of annual cropping and agroforestry systems on a shallow Alfisol in Semi-arid India. Agrofor Syst 15:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rao YV (1984) Leucaena plantations- A farming experience. Leucaena Res Rep 5:48–49Google Scholar
  92. Reddy VS, Sankaranarayana V, Janakiraman N, Gowda TNV, Venkataramana P, Sivappa V (2000) Effect of wind breaks for improving productivity of crops in arable lands in eastern dry zone of Karnataka. Crop Res (Hisar) 20(3):415–419Google Scholar
  93. Reddy YVR, Sudha M (1988) Economics of different land use systems in dryland farming. Annual Report, CRIDA, Hyderabad. pp 62–63Google Scholar
  94. Rocheleau D, Weber F, Field-Juma A (1988) Agroforestry in Dryland Africa. ICRAF, Kenya, p 18Google Scholar
  95. Roy MM (1991) Some tropical fodder trees for sustained fodder and firewood availability during lean periods. J Trop For 7:196–205Google Scholar
  96. Roy MM, Deb Roy R, Pathak PS (1987) Dichrostachys cinerea: a potential fodder shrub for waste land plantation. Silver Jubilee Publication No.6. IGFRI, JhansiGoogle Scholar
  97. Saigal S, Kashyap D (2002) The second green revolution: Analysis of farm forestry experience in western tarai region of Uttar Pradesh and coastal Andhra Pradesh. Ecotech Services Private Limited, New Delhi 180Google Scholar
  98. Saikia CN, Sharma TC (1994) Leucaena leucocephala: its culture and use as a source of high alpha – cellulose pulp. Adv For Res India XI:205–233Google Scholar
  99. Shanmughavel P, Francis K (2001) Bioproductivity and nutrient cycling in bamboo and acacia plantation forests. Bioresour Technol 80(1):45–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharma KK (1996) Agroforestry in farming systems development. Indian For 122(7):547–559Google Scholar
  101. Singh HP (1999) Integrated Watershed Management in Drylands –A System Perspective. In: Singh HP, Ramakrishna YS, Sharma KL, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Fifty Years of Dryland Agriculture Research in India. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, India, pp 259–270Google Scholar
  102. Singh P, Roy MM (1993) Silvopastoral systems for ameliorating productivity of degraded lands in India. Ann For 1:61–73Google Scholar
  103. Singh RP, Reddy YVR (1986) Degradation and rehabilitation of drylands some technical and economical aspects. Paper presented in Regional Workshop for 9 countries of South and Southeast Asia on Economics of Dry and Degradation and Rehabilitation held from August 25–29, 1986 at New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  104. Singh SB, Srivastav A, Bhatnagar S (2005) Response of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Dalbergia sissoo to fertilizers in sodic soil. Indian For 131:1171–1177Google Scholar
  105. Singh YD, Vijay Kumar V, Patel IL, Sharma YK, Dangar SV, Subba Rao SV (1998) Ecorestoration of Banni Grassland, First Annual Technical Report, Gujarat Ecology Commission, GERI Campus, Race Course Road, Vadodara, India, pp 16–18Google Scholar
  106. Solanki KR, Ramnewaj AK (1999) Agroforestry, an alternate land use system for dryland agriculture. In: Singh HP, Ramakrishna YS, Sharma KL, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Fifty Years of Dryland Agricultural Research in India CRIDA. Hyderabad, pp 463–473Google Scholar
  107. Srinivas K, Vittal KPR, Sharma KL (1999) Resource characterization of dryland: Soils. In: Singh HP, Ramakrishna YS, Sharma KL, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Fifty Years of Dryland Agriculture Research in India. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, pp 41–55Google Scholar
  108. Srinivasa Rao CH, Venkateswarlu B, Dinesh Babu M, Wani SP, Dixit S, Sahrawat KL, Kundu S (2011) Soil health improvement with Glyricidia green leaf manuring in rainfed agriculture: on-farm experiences. CRIDA Hyderabad, p 16Google Scholar
  109. Srivastava RL, Ashok Kumar, Sharma SK, Emmanuel CJS K, Tomar UK (2008) Initial performance of tissue culture raised bamboos in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Indian For 134(7):916–922Google Scholar
  110. TERI (2005-2006) Annual report. The Energy Research Institute, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  111. Totey NG, Arun P, Kapoor KS, Kulkarni R, Khatri PK, Chouhan JS, Bhowmik AK, Dahia VK (1989) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on growth and yield of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) seedlings. Indian J For 12(2):106–111Google Scholar
  112. Venkateswarlu J (1986) Efficient Resource Management for Drylands. In: 15 years of Dryland Agriculture Research, CRIDA, Hyderabad, India, pp 42–58Google Scholar
  113. Virmani SM, Pathak P, Singh R (1991) Soil related constraints in dryland crop production in Vertisols, Alfisols and Entisols of India. In: Soil Related Constraints in Crop Production. Bulletin 15, Indian Society of Soil Science, pp 80–95Google Scholar
  114. Wani SP, Sridevi TK, Rockstrom J, Ramakrishna YS (2009) Rainfed Agriculture-past trend and future prospectus. In: Wani SP, Rockstrom J, Oweis T (eds) Rainfed Agriculture: Unlocking the potential Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture Series. CAB International, Wallingford. UK, pp 1–35Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Korwar
    • 1
  • J. V. N. S. Prasad
    • 1
  • G. Rajeshwara Rao
    • 1
  • G. Venkatesh
    • 1
  • G. Pratibha
    • 1
  • B. Venkateswarlu
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA)HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations