In India, though agroforestry is an age-old land use system since time immemorial, the organized research was initiated in early 1970s through industry participation in plantation of commercial tree species through Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) institutes. As follow-up, the All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Agroforestry was established in 1983 by the ICAR for conducting research work in collaboration with State Agricultural Universities situated in different agro-climatic zones. Since then voluminous data has been generated about both traditional as well as improved agroforestry systems and practices. Now, about 25 million ha area in the country (8.2 % of the total reported geographical area), is reported under agroforestry in both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture which also includes trees outside forests and scattered trees on and off the agricultural fields. In this publication, the various chapters are compiled in such a way that a clear picture of various potential agroforestry systems both traditional and improved found in different agro-ecological regions is presented. Some systems are adopted across a number of climatic regions (for example salt-affected and waterlogged areas); but the problems are of different nature in different regions. To deal with such cases, separate chapters are included to present agroforestry approaches dealing with specific problems. The entire information has been synthesized under heads: progress made (diagnostic survey, evaluation of promising MPTs, rehabilitation of degraded lands, use of poor quality water for agroforestry interventions, muti-enterprise agroforestry models, emerging paradigms of biofuels, climate resilient systems, etc.), lessions learnt, and way forward.