Insect-Pests and Their Management: Current Status and Future Need of Research in Quality Maize



Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important staple food for millions of people across the world. However, different stress factors mainly the insect-pests, viz., maize stalk borer, pink stem borer, sugarcane leafhopper, shoot bug, armyworm, shoot fly, corn leaf aphid, cob borer, and termites, have constrained the increase in yield potential of the maize genotypes deployed in India. The hybrid initiative turned out to be exceedingly important for Quality Protein Maize (QPM) efforts, and many countries in the developing world including India are becoming increasingly interested in QPM to reduce malnourishment and to sustain nutritional security. However, it is also likely that the increase in concentration and quality of nutritional components particularly the protein in QPM might favor the proliferation of insect-pests as they too prefer quality food for their growth and development and could be major constraints to increasing production and productivity of QPM. Therefore, development and deployment of high-yielding and insect-resistant QPM genotypes under the umbrella of integrated pest management system might help in narrowing down the yield gap by reducing the crop losses caused by insect-pests. Since maize is damaged by an array of insect groups with different feeding habits right from the seedling stage to maturity of the crop, no single strategy is sufficient to manage such complex group of insect-pests. Damage potential of different insect-pests, status of host plant resistance and the mechanisms of resistance involved, and the management of major insect-pests have also been discussed in this chapter.


Stem Borer Maize Genotype Quality Protein Maize Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus Corn Earworm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arnason JT, Lambert JDH, Gale J, Mihm J, Bjarnason M, Jewell D, Serratos JA, Fregeau-Reid J, Pietrzak L (1993) Is quality protein maize more susceptible than the normal lines to attack by maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais? Postharvest Biol Technol 2:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashfaq M, Farooq-Ahmad K (2002) Overwintering population of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) at high altitudes of Kashmir. J Biol Sci 2(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck SD (1965) Resistance of plants to insects. Ann Rev Entomol 10:207–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhanot JP, Singh SP, Moudgal RK, Verma T (2004) Insect resistance in maize: retrospect and prospect. In: Dhaliwal GS, Singh R (eds) Host plant resistance to insects: concepts and applications. Panima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, pp 222–237Google Scholar
  5. Bing JW, Guthrie WD (1991) Generation mean analysis for resistance in maize to the corn leaf aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 84:1080–1082Google Scholar
  6. Birkett MA, Chamberlain K, Khan ZR, Pickett JA, Toshova T, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2006) Electrophysiological responses of the lepidopterous stem borers Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca to volatiles from wild and cultivated host plants. J Chem Ecol 32:2475–2487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjarnason M, Vasal SK (1992) Breeding of quality protein maize (QPM). Plant Breed Rev 9:181–216Google Scholar
  8. Butron A, Tarrio R, Revilla P, Ordas A, Malvar RA (2005) Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer. Theor Appl Genet 110:1044–1051CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Buttery RG, Ling LC (1984) Corn leaf volatiles, identification using tenax trapping for possible insect attractants. J Agric Food Chem 32:1104–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cartea ME, Malvar RA, Vales MJ, Burton A, Ordas A (2001) Inheritance of resistance to ear damage caused by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize. J Econ Entomol 94:277–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Alessandro M, Turlings TCJ (2005) In situ modification of herbivore-induced plant odors: a novel approach to study the attractiveness of volatile organic compounds to parasitic wasps. Chem Senses 30:739–753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. D’Alessandro M, Turlings TCJ (2006) Advances and challenges in the identification of volatiles that mediate interactions among plants and arthropods. Analyst 131:24–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dass S, Jat ML, Singh I (2008) Taking maize to amazing heights. In: Agriculture Today, The National Agriculture Magazine, CP Office-306, Rohit House, 3 Tolstoy Marg, New Delhi, pp 79–82Google Scholar
  14. Degen T, Dillmann C, Marion-Poll F, Turlings TCJ (2004) High genetic variability of herbivore-induced volatile emission within a broad range of maize inbred lines. Plant Physiol 135:1928–1938CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dicke M (1999) Are herbivore-induced plant volatiles reliable indicators of herbivore identity to foraging carnivorous arthropods? Entomol Exp Appl 91:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DMR (2007) Annual report 2007. Directorate of Maize Research, Pusa campus, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. Durbey SL, Sarup P (1982) Ovipositional responses of moths of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) on different maize germplasms. J Entomol Res 6:1–9Google Scholar
  18. Gouinguene SP, Turlings TCJ (2002) The effects of abiotic factors on induced volatile emissions in corn plants. Plant Physiol 129:1296–1307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gouinguene S, Degen T, Turlings TCJ (2001) Variability in herbivore-induced odour emissions among maize cultivars and their wild ancestors (teosinte). Chemoecology 11:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoballah ME, Turlings TCJ (1999) Experimental evidence that plants under caterpillar attack may benefit from attracting parasitoids. Evol Ecol Res 3:553–565Google Scholar
  21. Hoballah ME, Kollner TG, Degenhardt J, Turlings TCJ (2004) Costs of induced volatile production in maize. Oikos 105:168–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hossain F, Prasanna BM, Sharma RK, Kumar P, Singh BB (2007) Evaluation of quality protein maize genotypes for resistance to stored grain weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Int J Trop Insect Sci 27:114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kabre GB, Ghorpade SA (1997) Studies on association of some chemical constituents of maize genotypes with susceptibility of stem borer. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 22:301–304Google Scholar
  24. Kabre GB, Ghorpade SA (1999) Susceptibility to maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in relation to sugars, proteins and free amino acids content of maize germplasm and F1 hybrids. J Insect Sci 12:37–40Google Scholar
  25. Kanta U, Dhillon BD, Sekhon SS (1997) Evaluation and development of maize germplasm for resistance to spotted stem borer., Proceedings of an international symposium on insect resistant maize: recent advances and utilization CIMMYT ,Mexico, 27 November–3 December, 1994, pp 246–254Google Scholar
  26. Kessler A, Baldwin IT (2001) Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science 1291:2141–2144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kessler A, Baldwin IT (2002) Plant responses to insect herbivory: the emerging molecular analysis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:299–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Khairallah M, Hoisington D, Gonzalez de Leon D, Bohn M, Melchinger A, Jewell DC, Deutsch JA, Mihm JA (1997) Location and effect of quantitative trait loci for southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer resistance in tropical maize. Proceedings of an international symposium on insect resistant maize: recent advances and utilization held at CIMMYT, Mexico, 27 November – 3 December 1994, pp 148–154Google Scholar
  29. Khan ZR, Pickett JA, van den Berg J, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2000) Exploiting chemical ecology and species diversity: stem borer and striga control for maize and sorghum in Africa (Swedish: Sweden). Pest Manag Sci 56:957–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Klun JA, Brindley TA (1966) Role of 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone in inbred resistance of host plant (maize) to first brood larvae of European corn borer. J Econ Entomol 59:711–718Google Scholar
  31. Klun JA, Gutherie WD, Hallauer AR, Russell WA (1970) Genetic nature of the concentration of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H) 1, 4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one and resistance to the European corn borer in a diallel set of eleven maize inbreds (German: Germany). Crop Sci 10:87–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kollner TG, Schnee C, Gershenzon J, Degenhardt J (2004) The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of maize (Zea mays) form five groups with distinct developmental and organ-specific distribution. Phytochemistry 65:1895–1902CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Krakowsky MD, Lee M, Holland JB (2007) Genetic correlation and multivariate QTL analyses for cell wall components and resistance to stalk tunneling by the European corn borer in maize. Crop Sci 47:485–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumar H (1992) Inhibition of ovipositional responses of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by the trichomes on the lower leaf surface of a maize. J Econ Entomol 85:1736–1739Google Scholar
  35. Kumar H (1997) Resistance in maize to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): an overview. Crop Prot 16:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kumar H, Mihm JA (1996) Resistance in maize hybrids and inbreds to first-generation southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar) and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. Crop Prot 15:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumar H, Saxena KN (1985) Ovipositional responses of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) to certain susceptible and resistant maize genotypes. Insect Sci Appl 6:331–335Google Scholar
  38. Kumar J, Kashyap NP, Sharma SD (2001) Pests of maize and their management in Himachal Pradesh – a review. Agric Rev 22(1):47–51Google Scholar
  39. McMullen MD, Frey M, Degenhardt J (2009) Genetics and biochemistry of insect resistance in maize. In: Bennetzen JL, Hake SC (eds) Handbook of Maize: its biology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Mertz ET, Bates LS, Nelson OE (1964) Mutant gene that changes protein composition and increases lysine content of maize endosperm. Science 145:279–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ortiz-Monasterio JI, Manske GGB, van Ginkel M (2001) Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency. In: Reynods MP, Ortiz-Monasterio JI, McNab A (eds) Application of physiology in wheat breeding. CIMMYT, Mexico, pp 200–207Google Scholar
  42. Panwar VPS (2005) Management of maize stalk borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in maize. In: Zaidi PH, Singh NN (eds) Stresses on maize in tropics. Directorate of Maize Research, New Delhi, pp 324–375Google Scholar
  43. Rakshit S, Kaul J, Dass S, Singh R, Sekhar JC, Singh SB (2008) Catalogue of Indian maize inbred lines, Technical bulletin No. 2008/3. Directorate of Maize Research, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, p 40Google Scholar
  44. Rao CN, Panwar VPS (2000) Morphological plant characters affecting resistance to Chilo partellus in maize. Annu Plant Prot Sci 8:145–149Google Scholar
  45. Rao CN, Panwar VPS (2001) Anatomical plant characters affecting resistance to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in maize. Annu Plant Prot Sci 9:304–306Google Scholar
  46. Reddy KVS, Zehr UB (2004) Novel strategies for overcoming pests and diseases in India. Proceedings of the 4th international crop science congress on new directions for a diverse planet, Brisbane, 25 September–2 October 2004, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  47. Sekhar JC, Rakshit S, Kumar P, Mehrajuddin AM, Dass S (2008) Differential reaction of CIMMYT maize lines and their hybrid combinations to pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens walker. Annu Plant Prot Sci 16:404–406Google Scholar
  48. Sharma HC, Dhillon MK, Pampapathy G, Reddy BVS (2007) Inheritance of resistance to spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. Euphytica 156:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh NN, Venkatesh S (2006) Development of quality protein maize inbred lines. In: Kaloo G, Rai M, Singh M, Kumar S (eds) Heterosis in crop plants. Research Book Center, New Delhi, pp 102–113Google Scholar
  50. Turlings TCJ, Tumlinson JH, Lewis WJ (1990) Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitic wasps. Science 250:1251–1253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Turlings TCJ, Tumlinson JH, Heath RR, Proveaux AT, Doolittle RE (1991) Isolation and identification of allelochemicals that attract the larval parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), to the microhabitat of one of its hosts. J Chem Ecol 17:2235–2251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. van den Berg J (2006) Oviposition preference and larval survival of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) trap crops. Int J Pest Manage 52:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Loon JJA, de Boer JG, Dicke M (2000) Parasitoid-plant mutualism: parasitoid attack of herbivore increases plant reproduction. Entomol Exp Appl 97:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Varshney AK, Ravindra Babu B, Singh AK, Agarwal HC, Jain SC (2003) Ovipositional responses of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to natural products from leaves of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 51:4008–4012CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Varshney AK, Singh AK, Agarwal HC (2007) Orientational responses of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae to visual and olfactory stimuli from leaves of two cultivars of maize Zea mays. Int J Trop Insect Sci 27:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vasal SK (2001) High quality protein corn. In: Hallauer AR (ed) Speciality corns. CRC Press, New York, pp 85–129Google Scholar
  57. Vasal SK (2002) Quality protein maize: overcoming the hurdles. J Crop Prod 6:193–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vasal SK, Villegas E, Tang CY, Werder J, Read M (1984) Combined use of two genetic systems in development and improvement of quality protein maize. Kulturpflanza 32:171–185Google Scholar
  59. Vasal SK, Dhillon BS, Pandey S (1994) Recurrent selection methods based on evaluation-cum-recombination block. Plant Breed Rev 14:139–163Google Scholar
  60. Widstrom NW, Snook ME (2001) Recurrent selection for maysin, a compound in maize silks, antibiotic to earworm. Plant Breed 120:357–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Williams WP, Buckley PF, Davis FM (1995) Combining ability in maize for fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance based on a laboratory bioassay for larval growth. Theor Appl Genet 90:275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams WP, Davis FM, Buckley PF (1998) Resistance to southwestern corn borer in corn after anthesis. Crop Sci 38:1514–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Worku M, Banziger M, Friesen D, Erley GSA, Diallo AO, Vivek B, Horst W (2007) Protein quantity and quality, and grain yield performance of quality protein maize and normal endosperm maize under different levels of nitrogen. Afr Crop Sci Conf Proc 8:1905–1909Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EntomologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations