Pesticide Residue Management in Grapes

  • Mani M. 
  • Shivaraju C. 
  • Narendra S. Kulkarni


Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems, many are toxic to humans, and others are concentrated in the food chain. Insecticides are classified in several different ways. Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants. Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact with the product. Efficacy is often related to the quality of pesticide application, with small droplets (such as aerosols) often improving performance. Natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum and neem extracts, are made by plants as defences against insects. Plant-incorporated protectants are insecticidal substances produced by plants after genetic modification. For instance, a gene that codes for a specific Bacillus thuringiensis biocidal protein is introduced into the genetic material of a crop plant. The plant then manufactures the protein. Since the biocide is incorporated into the plant, additional applications, at least of the same compound, are not required. Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals and include arsenates, copper compounds and fluorine compounds, which are now seldom used, and sulphur, which is commonly used. Organic insecticides are synthetic chemicals that account for the largest number of pesticides available for use today.


Pesticide Residue Integrate Pest Management Pest Population Maximum Residue Limit Chemical Pesticide 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mani M. 
    • 1
  • Shivaraju C. 
    • 1
  • Narendra S. Kulkarni
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Entomology and NematologyIndian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EntomologyIndian Grassland and Fodder Research InstituteDharwadIndia

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