Monitoring of High-Risk Areas: Intensive Care Units

  • B. K. Rao


Infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting constitute one of the greatest challenges of modern medicine especially with the increasing occurrence of infection caused by multidrug-resistant or extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Although device utilization in the developing countries’ ICUs is remarkably similar to that reported from US ICUs, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection are reported to be markedly higher in the ICUs of the developing countries’ hospitals [1]. Patients requiring ICU care can have community-acquired infections or hospital-acquired infections or healthcare-associated infections. Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a cause of increased morbidity, mortality, and resource expenditure throughout the hospital setting and particularly in the intensive care unit. The severity of underlying disease, invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that breach normal host defenses, contaminated life-support equipment, and the prevalence of resistant microorganisms are critical factors in the high rate of infection in the ICUs.


Bloodstream Infection National Healthcare Safety Network Condom Catheter Normal Host Defense Intensive Care Unit Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Rosenthal VD, Maki DG, Jamulitrat S, Medeiros EA, Todi SK, Gomez DY, et al. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary for 2003–2008, issued June 2009. Am J Infect Control. 2010;38(2):95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vincent JL, Rello J, Marshall J, Silva E, Anzueto A, Martin CD, Moreno R, Lipman J, Gomersall C, Sakr Y, Reinhart K. International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units. JAMA. 2009;302:2323–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cruciani M. Meta-analyses of diagnostic tests in infectious diseases: how helpful are they in the intensive care setting? HSR Proc Intensive Care Cardiovasc Anesth. 2011;3:103–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Safdar N, Maki DG. Inflammation at the insertion site is not predictive of catheter-related bloodstream infection with short-term, noncuffed central venous catheters. Crit Care Med. 2002;30:2632–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    CDC-Ventilator-Associated Event – NHSN. Available at
  6. 6.
    Edwards JR, Peterson KD, Mu Y, Banerjee S, Allen-Bridson K, Morrell G, et al. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) report: data summary for 2006 through 2008, issued December 2009. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:783–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morrow LE, Kollef MH. Recognition and prevention of nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit and infection control in mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(Suppl):S352–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI). Available at
  9. 9.
    Hooton TMTM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, Colgan R, Geerlings SE, Rice JC, Saint S, Schaeffer AJ, Tambayh PA, Tenke P, Nicolle LE. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 international clinical practice guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:625–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Critical Care and Emergency MedicineSir Ganga Ram HospitalNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations