Biopolitics and Urban Governmentality in Mumbai
Everyday spaces for urban poor, informal workers and less privileged minority communities in the city of Mumbai portray that right to the city is differentially constituted for different people and communities. The chapter employs Foucault’s notions of governmentality and biopolitics to elucidate the complex manner in which the government and affluent sections of the society ensure that the urban poor continue to provide services for them amidst persistent insecurity, informality and anxiety. The chapter draws from three different, yet interlinked, cases mentioned above to establish and demonstrate the exercise of biopower in governing the city of Mumbai and its people. It explains the use of biopolitical strategies, such as statistical enquiries, censuses and programmes for enhancement or curtailment of benefits and services through which social lives get regulated, disciplined and marginalized.
KeywordsUrban Space Urban Poor Muslim Community Informal Work Solid Waste Management
- Agamben, G. (1998). Homo sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Agamben, G. (2002). Means without end. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Google Scholar
- Baxstrom. (2000). ‘Governmentality, bio-power and the emergence of the Malayan-Tamil subjects on the plantations of colonial Malaya’. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 14(2), 49–78, Accessed 6 Sept 2011 10:17Google Scholar
- Burra, S. (2005). Towards a pro-poor framework for slum upgrading in Mumbai, India. Environment and Urbanization, 17(1), 67–88.Google Scholar
- Das, P. K. (2003). Slums improvement and development schemes & policies. http://www.pkdas.com/pdfs/Nationalconsultation-Slums.pdf. Accessed 28 Jun 2013.
- DNA (2010). P. Chidambaram blames migrants for crimes in Delhi, triggers reaction, December 13. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_p-chidambaram-blames-migrants-for-crimes-in-delhi-triggers-reaction_1480629. Accessed 4 Sept 2012.
- Foucault, M. (1977). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (1984). Of other spaces: Utopias and heterotopias. Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité, Vol. 5, 46–49.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality: An introduction (Vol. 1). New York: Vintage. Originally published 1976.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 102–103). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Fraser, N. (1992). Rethinking the public sphere. In C. Calhon (Ed.), Habermas and the public sphere (pp. 109–142). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Government of India. (1999). Solid waste management in Class 1 cities. Report of the committee constituted by the Hon. Supreme Court of India. Available at http://www.karmayog.com/cleanliness/swmcc.htm
- Harriss, J. (2007). Antinomies of empowerment: Observations of civil society, politics and urban governance in India. Economic and Political Weekly, June 30, 2716–2724.Google Scholar
- Hindustan Times (2012). Uddhav Thackeray, Shiv Sena leader, wants permit system for migrant Biharis in Mumbai, Mumbai, 4 Sept 2012. http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/Mumbai/Uddhav-wants-permit-system-for-Biharis-in-Mumbai/Article1-924181.aspx. Accessed 4 Sept 2012.
- India Today. (2012). Migrants to blame for rapes: Sheila Dikshit, 12 Apr 2012.Google Scholar
- Jha, M. K. (2011). Place of poor in urban space. Policies and Practice. No 39. Kolkata: Calcutta Research Group.Google Scholar
- Jha, M. K. (2013). The idea of identity card(s) and experiences of subaltern Mumbai. In Atig Ghosh (Ed.), Branding the migrant. Kolkata: Frontpage Publications.Google Scholar
- Jha, M. K., & Shajahan, P. K. (2010). Social topography of delineated others: Muslims in contemporary India. In A. Waheed (Ed.), Minority education in India (pp. 3–19). New Delhi: SERIALS Publications.Google Scholar
- Kumar, A. (2005). Mumbai’s expendable poor. Economic and Political Weekly, 5 Feb, 506–510.Google Scholar
- Lazzarato, M. (2002). From biopower to biopolitics. Pli: The Warwick Journal of Philosophy, 13, 99–113.Google Scholar
- Lefebvre, H. (1996). Writings on cities. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Lemke, T. (2000). Foucault, governmentality and critique. Paper presented at the rethinking Marxism conference, University of Amherst (MA), 21–24 Sept 2000. Retrieved from J Stor.Google Scholar
- Neuwirth, R. (2005). Shadow cities: A billion squatters, a new urban world. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Rose, N. (2006). Governing “advanced” liberal democracies. In A. Sharma & A. Gupta (Eds.), The anthropology of the state (pp. 144–162). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Roy, A. (2004). Transnational trespassing: The geopolitics of urban informality. In A. Roy & N. Al-Sayyad (Eds.), Urban informality: Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
- Scott, J. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human conditions have failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Sen, S. (2011). Trash collection up, but zero garbage still a dream. Times of India, Mumbai. 5 Nov 2011.Google Scholar
- Shajahan, P. K. (2009). Demons proselytizers and liquid fear: Communal expressions in contemporary India. In S. Sharma & M. K. Jha (Eds.), Opposition to silence (pp. 169–184). New Delhi: Alter Note Press.Google Scholar
- Sharma, R. N., Vyas, M., Jha, M., & Shaban, A. (2008). Impact assessment of resettlement implementation under Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP). Mumbai: Tata Institute of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
- The Hindu (2012). ‘Following protests from the Bihar government after an alleged Azad Maidan rioter was picked up from that State, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena chief Raj Thackeray has threatened to brand every migrant from Bihar an “infiltrator”’, 31 Aug 2012. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article3845043.ece. Accessed 5 Sept 2012.