Advertisement

Introduction

  • Pratima Bajpai
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)

Abstract

Energy consumption has increased steadily over the last century as the world population has grown and more countries have become industrialized. Crude oil has been the major resource to meet the increased energy demand. Campbell and Laherrere (1998) used several techniques to estimate the current known crude oil reserves and the reserves as yet undiscovered.

Keywords

Ethanol Production Corn Stover Clean Development Mechanism Ethanol Industry Research Octane Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ANP (2007) Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e BiocombustíveisGoogle Scholar
  2. Badger PC (2002) Ethanol from cellulose: a general review. In: Janick J, Whipkey A (eds) Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria VA USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Bajpai P (2007) Bioethanol. PIRA Technology Report, Smithers PIRA, UKGoogle Scholar
  4. Berg C (2004) World Ethanol production. The distillery and bioethanol network. Available at http://www.distill.com/ world ethanol production.htm
  5. BP (2006) The global ethanol industry is going through a period of rapid growth. Available at: http://www.bp.com/
  6. Campbell CJ, Laherrere JH (1998) The end of cheap oil. Scientif Amer 278(3):60–65Google Scholar
  7. Chandel AK, Chan ES, Rudravaram R, Lakshmi, M, Venkateswar Rao and Ravindra, P, (2007) Economics and environmental impact of bioethanol production technologies: an appraisal, Biotechnol. Mole Boil Rev 2(1): 014–032Google Scholar
  8. Dien BS, Jung HJG, Vogel KP, Casler MD, Lamb JAFS, Iten L, Mitchell RB, Sarath G (2006) Chemical composition and response to dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of alfalfa, reed canary grass and switch grass. Biomass Bioenergy 30(10):880–891Google Scholar
  9. DOE, Department of Energy (2007a) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Washington DC, US, http://www.doe.gov
  10. DOE (2007b) Fuel cell overview. US Department of Energy; available at http://hydrogen.energy.gov/
  11. EBIO—European Biofuel Association (2006) Bioethanol fuel in numbers. Available at: www.ebio.org
  12. EIA (Energy Information Administration) (1999) Biofuel: better for the environment United StatesGoogle Scholar
  13. EIA (Energy Information Administration) (2006) Annual energy outlook 2007. US Department of Energy. Available at www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html
  14. Ghosh P, Ghose TK (2003) Bioethanol in India: recent past and immediate future. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, vol 85, p 1Google Scholar
  15. Goldemberg J, Monaco LC, Macedo IC (1993) The Brazilian Fuel-Alcohol program. In: Johansson T, Kelly H, Reddy AKN, Williams RH, Burnham L (eds) Renewable energy. Sources for fuels and electricity. Island Press, Washington, pp 841–863Google Scholar
  16. Gray KA, Zhao L, Emptage M (2006) Bioethanol. Curr Opin Chem Biol 10:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hägerdal BH, Galbe M, Grauslund MFG, Lidén G, Zacchi G (2006) Bioethanol: the fuel of tomorrow from the residues of today. Trends Biotechnol 24:549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hamelinck CN, Hooijdonk GV, Faaij APC (2005) Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Biomass Bioenergy 28:384–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hazell P, Pachauri RK (2006) Bioenergy and agriculture: promises and challenges. International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  20. Hazell P, von Braun J (2006) Biofuels: a win–win approach that can serve the poor. International Food Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  21. Herrera S (2004) Industrial biotechnology—a chance at redemption. Nature Biotechnol 22:671–675MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. IPCC (2001) Intergovernmental panel on climate change. Climate change: the scientific basis. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Jessel Al (2006) Chevron Products Company 2006 Management Briefing Seminars Traverse City, MI www.cargroup.org/mbs2006/documents/JESSEL.pdf
  24. Joseph Jr H (2005) Long term experience from dedicated & flex fuel ethanol vehicles in Brazil. Clean Vehicles and Fuels Symposium. StockholmGoogle Scholar
  25. Kheshgi HS, Prince RC, Marland G (2000) The potential of biomass fuels in the context of global climate change. Focus on transportation fuels. Annual Rev Energy Environ 25:199–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Launder, Kelly (1999) Opportunities and Constraints for Ethanol-Based Transportation Fuels. Lansing: State of Michigan, Department of Consumer & Industry Services, Biomass Energy Program. Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/cis/0,1607,7-154-25676_25753_30083-141676--,00.html
  27. Luhnow D, Samor G (2006) As Brazil fills up on Ethanol, It weans off, energy imports. Wall Street JGoogle Scholar
  28. Lynch DJ (2006) Brazil hopes to build on its Ethanol success. USA TodayGoogle Scholar
  29. Lynd LR (1996) Overview and evaluation of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass: technology, economics, the environment, and policy, Annual Reviews. Energy Environ 21:403–465Google Scholar
  30. Lynd LR, Wang MQ (2004) A product-nonspecific frame work for evaluating the potential of biomass-based products to displace fossil fuels. J Ind Ecol 7:17–32Google Scholar
  31. McMillan JD (1997) Bioethanol production: status and prospects. Renewable Energy 10:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moreira JR, Walter A (2005) Overview on bioenergy activity for transport in Brazil. Presentation at 14th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. ParisGoogle Scholar
  33. Morris D (1993) Ethanol: a 150 year struggle toward a renewable future. Washington: Institute for Local Self-Reliance. Available at: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/1854.pdf
  34. Nastari P (2005a) Etanol de Cana-de-Açúcar: o Combustível de Hoje. Presentation at Proalcool—30 anos depois. São PauloGoogle Scholar
  35. Nastari P, Macedo IC, Szwarc A (2005b) Observations on the Draft Document entitled "Potential for biofuels for transport in developing countries". Presented at the World Bank. WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  36. Paszner L (2006) Bioethanol: fuel of the future. Pulp Pap Can 107(4): 26–27, 29Google Scholar
  37. REN21 (2006) Renewables—Global Status Report. Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. Available at: www.ren21.net
  38. RFA—Renewable Fuels Association (2006) Ethanol industry outlook: From niche to nation. Available at: www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/pdf/outlook/outlook_2006.pdf
  39. Rosillo-Calle F, Walter A (2006) Global market for bioethanol: historical trends and future prospects. Energy Sustain Dev X(1):18–30Google Scholar
  40. Sun Y, Cheng J (2004) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Biores Technol 83:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tanaka L (2006) Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:627–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turkenburg WC (2000) Renewable energy technologies (Chapter 7). In: Goldemberg J et al. (eds.) World energy assessment report, United Nations Development Programme UNDP, New York, NY, USA. pp 135–171Google Scholar
  43. Walker GM (2010) Bioethanol: Science and technology of fuel alcohol, Ventus Publishing ApS ISBN 978-87-7681-681-0Google Scholar
  44. Wyman CE, Hinman ND (1990). Ethanol. Fundamentals of production from renewable feedstocks and use as transportation fuel. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 24/25:735–775Google Scholar
  45. Yacobucci B, Womach J (2003) Fuel Ethanol: background and public policy issues. Washington DC: Library of Congress. Available at: http://www.ethanol-gec.org/information/briefing/1.pdf

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.C-103 Thapar Centre for Industrial R&DPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations