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Ecology and Functional Potential of Endophytes in Bioremediation: A Molecular Perspective

  • Sohail Yousaf
  • Muhammad Afzal
  • Mariam Anees
  • Riffat Naseem Malik
  • Andrea Campisano
Chapter

Abstract

Hazardous waste sites around the world result from the manufacturing, storage, use, or disposal of compounds such as petroleum hydrocarbons, nitroaromatics, organohalogens, pesticides, and metals. Traditional remediation options are expensive and environmentally invasive. In last two decades, bioremediation has emerged as a more suitable alternative, mainly for the remediation of large polluted sites. Endophytic bacteria and fungi have been the subject of considerable study to explore their potential for improving the remediation of polluted environments. In case of phytoremediation of inorganic pollutants, endophytic bacteria can reduce the phytotoxicity and increase the mobilization and accumulation of heavy metals in aboveground plant biomass. The competency of several endophytes to degrade organic pollutants and their resistance to heavy metals probably originates from their exposure to these compounds, when present in the plant/soil niche. A wide range of molecular techniques have been applied to illustrate the ecology, diversity, composition, and role of endophytes in bioremediation. Fingerprinting techniques such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, microarrays, and metagenomics are being used to characterize the metal-resistant and organic pollutant-degrading endophytes.

Keywords

Endophytic Fungus Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Endophytic Bacterium Hydrocarbon Degradation Italian Ryegrass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sohail Yousaf
    • 1
  • Muhammad Afzal
    • 2
  • Mariam Anees
    • 3
  • Riffat Naseem Malik
    • 1
  • Andrea Campisano
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Environmental BiotechnologyNational Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE)FaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources DepartmentIASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund MachSan Michele all’AdigeItaly

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