Biocontrol and Bioremediation: Two Areas of Endophytic Research Which Hold Great Promise



Research into the beneficial use of endophytic organisms has dramatically increased worldwide in recent years. Endophytes are typically bacteria or fungi which colonize the internal tissues of plant hosts without causing visible negative effects. Two areas in endophyte research, which hold tremendous positive economic and environmental potential, are biocontrol and bioremediation. Biocontrol, short for biological control is the intentional use of a specific organism or their metabolic by-products to limit the harmful impact of a plant pest. Endophytes due to their unique symbiotic relationships within their hosts have the potential to directly act antagonistically against plant pests. In addition endophytes may also act indirectly against pests, benefitting their hosts by enhancing general plant growth or plant-protection responses, such as in the case of induced systemic resistance. Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms to alter or reduce the toxic impact of pollutants through various forms of metabolic activity. Microorganisms, in part due to their short life spans, can adapt relatively fast to environmental pollutants. Endophytes with these adaptations can in some cases provide their hosts with the capability to remediate their surrounding microenvironments. In this review, we will explore recent advances made in the promising areas of biocontrol and bioremediation research.


Biocontrol Agent Endophytic Bacterium Fungal Endophyte Induce Systemic Resistance Corn Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Afzal M, Yousaf S, Reichenauer TG, Kuffner M, Sessitsch A (2011) Soil type affects plant colonization, activity and catabolic gene expression of inoculated bacterial strains during phytoremediation of diesel. J Hazard Mater 186:1568–1575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Karaki GN, Al-Raddad A (1997) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress on growth and nutrient uptake of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Mycorrhiza 7:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alström S (2001) Characteristics of bacteria from oilseed rape in relations to their biocontrol activity against Verticillium dahlia. J Phytopathol 149:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arachevaleta M, Bacon CW, Hoveland CS, Radcliffe DE (1989) Effects of the tall fescue endophyte on plant response to environmental stress. Agron J 81:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arshad M, Saleem M, Hussain S (2007) Perspectives of bacterial ACC deaminase in phytoremediation. Trends Biotechnol 25:356–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arshad M, Shaharoona B, Mahmood T (2008) Inoculation with Pseudomonas spp. containing ACC-deaminase partially eliminates the effects of drought stress on growth, yield and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Pedosphere 18:611–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Augé RM (2001) Water relations, drought and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza 11:3–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Azcón-Aguilar C, Barea JM (1996) Arbuscular mycorrhizas and biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens – an overview of the mechanisms involved. Mycorrhiza 6:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bacon C (1993) Abiotic stress tolerances (moisture, nutrients) and photosynthesis in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Agri Ecosyst Environ 44:123–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bacon CW, Hinton DM (2007) Isolation, in planta detection, and uses of endophytic bacteria for plant protection. In: Hurst CJ et al (eds) Manual of environmental microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Bacon CW, Porter JK, Robbins JD, Luttrell ES (1977) Epichlöe typhina from toxic tall fescue grasses. Appl Environ Microbiol 34:76–81Google Scholar
  12. Baek JM, Howell CR, Kenerley CM (1999) The role of an extracellular chitinase from Trichoderma virens Gv29-8 in the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani. Curr Genet 35:41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bálint M, Tiffin P, Hallström B, O’Hara RB, Olson MS, Fankhauser JD, Piepenbring M, Schmitt I (2013) Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera). PLOS One 8(1):e53987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barac T, Taghavi S, Borremans B, Provoost A, Oeyen L, Colpaert JV, Vangronsveld J, van der Lelie D (2004) Engineered endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of water-soluble, volatile, organic pollutants. Nat Biotechnol 22:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barzanti R, Ozino F, Bazzicalup M, Gabbrielli R, Galardi F, Gonnelli C, Mengoni A (2007) Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum bertolonii. Microb Ecol 53:306–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Braud A, Jézéquel K, Bazot S, Lebeau T (2009) Enhanced phytoextraction of an agricultural Cr, Hg and Pb-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation with siderophore producing bacteria. Chemosphere 74:280–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Canakar K, Kraigher H, Ravnikar M, Rupnik M (2005) Bacterial endophytes from seeds of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst). FEMS Microbiol Lett 244:341–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charudattan R (2001) Biological control of weeds by means of plant pathogens: significance for integrated weed management in modern agro-ecology. BioControl 46:229–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clay K (1987) Effects of fungal endophytes on seed and seedling biology of Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea. Oecologia 73:358–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Compant S, Duffy B, Nowak J, Clément C, Barka EA (2005a) Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action and future prospects. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4951–4959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Compant S, Reiter B, Sessitsch A, Nowak J, Clément C, Barka EA (2005b) Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN. Appl Environ Mirobiol 4:1685–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Compant S, van der Heijden MGA, Sessitsch A (2010) Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 73:197–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Copping LG, Menn JJ (2000) Biopesticides: a review of their action, applications and efficacy. Pest Manag Sci 56:651–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cortesero AM, Stapel JO, Lewis WJ (2000) Understanding and manipulating plant attributes to enhance biological control. Biol Control 17:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:564–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cruz AT, Cazacu AC, Allen CH (2007) Pantoea agglomerans, a plant pathogen causing human disease. J Clin Microbiol 45:1989–1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dashti N, Khanafer M, El-Nemr I, Sorkhoh N, Ali S, Radwan S (2009) The potential of oil-utilizing bacterial consortia associated with legume root nodules for cleaning oily soils. Chemosphere 74:1354–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Denton BD (2007) Advances in phytoremediation of heavy metals using plant growth promoting bacteria and fungi. Microbiol Mol Genet 3:1–5Google Scholar
  29. Doberski JW, Tribe HT (1980) Isolation of entomogenous fungi from elm bark and soil with reference to ecology of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Trans Br Mycol Soc 74:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ernst M, Mendgen KW, Wirsel SGR (2003) Endophytic fungal mutualists: seed-borne Stagonospora spp. enhance reed biomass production in axenic microcosms. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:580–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Franks A, Ryan PR, Abbas A, Mark GL, O’Gara F (2006) Molecular tools for studying plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). In: Molecular techniques for soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. CABI Publishing, Wallingford/OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  32. Fraser EDG (2003) Social vulnerability and ecological fragility: building bridges between social and natural sciences using the Irish potato famine as a case study. Conserv Ecol 7:1–9Google Scholar
  33. Friesen TL, Stukenbrock EH, Liu Z, Meinhardt S, Ling H, Faris JD, Rasmussen JB, Solomon PS, McDonald BA, Oliver RP (2006) Emergence of a new disease as a result of interspecific virulence gene transfer. Nat Genet 38:953–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gange AC, Dey S, Currie AF, Sutton BC (2007) Site- and species-specific differences in endophyte occurrence in two herbaceous plants. J Ecol 94:614–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Germaine KJ, Liu X, Cabellos GG, Hogan JP, Ryan D, Dowling DN (2006) Bacterial endophyte-enhanced phytoremediation of the organochlorine herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 57:302–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Germaine KJ, Keogh E, Ryan D, Dowling DN (2009) Bacterial endophyte-mediated naphthalene phytoprotection and phytoremediation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 296:226–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glick BR (2005) Modulation of plant ethylene levels by the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 251:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hallman J, Quadt-Hallman A, Mahaffee WF, Kloepper JW (1997) Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can J Microbiol 43:895–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hammond-Kosack K, Jones JDG (2000) Responses to plant pathogens. In: Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, pp 1102–1156Google Scholar
  40. Han DY, Coplin DL, Bauer WD, Hoitink HAJ (2000) A rapid bioassay for screening rhizosphere microorganisms for their ability to induce systemic resistance. Phytopathology 90:327–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Handelsman J, Stabb EV (1996) Biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens. Plant Cell 8:1855–1869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hardoim PR, Van Overbeek LS, Elsas JDV (2008) Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth. Trends Microbiol 16:463–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jabaji-Hare S, Neate SM (2005) Nonpathogenic binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. and benzothiadiazole protect cotton seedlings against Rhizoctonia damping-off and Alternaria leaf spot in cotton. Biocontrol 95:1030–1036Google Scholar
  44. Janisiewicz WJ, Roitman J (1988) Biological control of blue mold and grey mold on apple and pear with Pseudomonas cepacia. Phytopathology 78:1697–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson MC, Dahlman DL, Siegel MR, Bush LP, Latch GCM, Potter DA, Varney DR (1985) Insect feeding deterrents in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:568–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jumpponen A, Trappe JM (1998) Dark septate endophytes: a review of facultative biotrophic root-colonizing fungi. New Phytol 140:295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Khan Z, Doty S (2011) Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation. Curr Top Plant Biol 12:97–104Google Scholar
  48. Khan T, Latif A, Hamayun M, Ahmad N, Hussain J, Kang S, Kim Y, Adnan M, Tang D, Waqas M, Radhakrishnan R, Hwang Y, Lee I (2011) Salinity stress resistance offered by endophytic fungal interaction between Penicillium minioluteum LHL09 and Glycine max. L.J. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:893–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khan S, Afzal M, Iqbal S, Khan QM (2012) Plant–bacteria partnerships for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Chemosphere 90:1317–1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lahlali R, Hijri M (2010) Screening, identification and evaluation of potential biocontrol fungal endophytes against Rhizoctonia solani AG3 on potato plants. FEMS Microbiol Lett 311:152–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lai K, Chen S, Hu M, Hu Q, Geng P, Weng Q, Jia J (2012) Control of postharvest green mold of citrus fruit by application of endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa strain SG-6. Postharvest Biol Technol 69:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Latch GCM (1993) Physiological interactions of endophytic fungi and their hosts. Biotic stress tolerance imparted to grasses by endophytes. Agri Environ Microbiol 44:143–156Google Scholar
  53. Lodewyckx C, Taghavi S, Mergeay M, Vangronsveld J, Clijsters H, van der Lelie D (2001) The effect of recombinant heavy metal resistant endophytic bacteria on heavy metal uptake by their host plant. Int J Phytoremediat 3:173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lodwyckx C, Vangronsveld J, Porteous F, Moore ERB, Taghavi S, Mazgeay M, van der Leile D (2002) Endophytic bacteria and their potential applications. Crit Rev Plant Sci 21:583–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loiret FG, Ortega E, Kleiner D, Ortega-Rhoďes P, Roďes R, Dong Z (2004) A putative new endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Pantoea sp. from sugarcane. J Appl Microbiol 97:504–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ma Y, Prasad MNV, Rajkumar M, Freitas H (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes accelerate phytoremediation of metalliferous soils. Biotechnol Adv 29:248–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maara R, Ambrosimo P, Carbone V, Vinale F, Woo SL, Ruocco M, Ciliento R, Lanzuise S, Ferraioli S, Soriente I, Gigante S, Turrá D, Fogliano V, Scala F, Lorito M (2006) Study of the three-way interaction between Trichoderma atroviride, plant and fungal pathogens by using a proteomic approach. Curr Genet 50:307–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martin GB, Bogdanove AJ, Sessa G (2003) Understanding the functions of plant disease resistance proteins. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:23–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McGuinness M, Dowling D (2009) Plant-associated bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds in soil. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:2226–2247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mehta A, Brasileiro ACM, Souza DSL, Romano E, Campos MA, Frossi-de-Śa MF, Silva MS, Franco OL, Fragoso RR, Bevitori R, Rocha TL (2008) Plant-pathogen interactions: what is proteomics telling us? FEBS J 275:3731–3746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mejía LC, Rojas EI, Maynard Z, Van Bael S, Arnold AE, Hebbar P, Samuels GJ, Robbins N, Herre EA (2008) Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens. Biol Control 46:4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Müller CB, Krauss J (2005) Symbiosis between grasses and asexual fungal endophytes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:450–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Newman LA, Reynolds CM (2005) Bacteria and phytoremediation: new uses for endophytic bacteria in plants. Trends Biotechnol 23:6–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Niere BI, Speijer PR, Gold CS, Sikora RA (1999) Fungal endophytes from bananas for the biocontrol of Radopholus similis. In: Frison EA, Gold CS, Karamura EA, Sikora RA (eds) Mobilizing IPM for sustainable banana production in Africa. INIBAP, Montpellier, pp 237–245Google Scholar
  65. Ownley BH, Griffin MR (2012) Dual biological control of insect pests and plant pathogens with fungi in the order Hypocreales. In: Biocontrol: management, processes and challenges. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., HauppaugeGoogle Scholar
  66. Ownley BH, Griffin MR, Klingeman WE, Gwinn KD, Moulton JK, Pereira RM (2008) Beauveria bassiana: endophytic colonization and plant disease control. J Invertebr Pathol 98:267–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Peer WA, Baxter IR, Richards EL, Freeman JL, Murphy S (2005) Phytoremediation and hyperaccumulator plants. Hort. Scholar
  68. Pirttila AM, Joensuu P, Pospiech H, Jalonen J, Hohtola A (2004) Bud endophytes of Scots pine produce adenine derivatives and other compounds that affect morphology and mitigate browning of callus cultures. Pysiol Plant 121:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Porras-Alfaro A, Bayman P (2011) Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes. Ann Rev Phytopathol 49:291–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Porteous-Moore F, Barac T, Borremans B, Oeyen L, Vangronsveld J, van der Lelie D, Campbell D, Moore ERB (2006) Endophytic bacterial diversity in poplar trees growing on a BTEX-contaminated site: the characterisation of isolates with potential to enhance phytoremediation. Syst Appl Microbiol 29:539–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rajikumar M, Noriharu A, Prasad MNV, Freitas H (2010) Potential of siderophore-producing bacteria for improving heavy metal phytoextraction. Trends Biotechnol 28:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reiter B, Sessitsch A (2006) Bacterial endophytes of the wildflower Crocus albiflorus analyzed by characterization of isolates and by a cultivation-independent approach. Can J Microbiol 52:140–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Russo A, Carrozza GP, Vettori L, Felici C, Cinelli F, Toffanin A (2012) Plant beneficial microbes and their application in plant biotechnology. In: Agbo EC (ed) Innovations in biotechnology. Intechopen, pp 57–72. doi: 10.5772/2450
  74. Ryan RP, Germaine K, Franks A, Ryan DJ, Dowling DN (2008) Bacterial endophytes: recent developments and applications. FEMS Microbiol Lett 278:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saunders M, Kohn LM (2008) Evidence for alternation of fungal endophyte community assembly by host defense compounds. New Phytol 182:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schulz B, Boyle C (2005) The endophytic continuum. Mycol Res 6:661–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sessitsch A, Hardoim P, Dȍring J, Weilharter A, Krause A, Woyke T, Mitter B, Hauberg-Lotte L, Friedrich F, Rahalkar M, Hurek T, Sarkar A, Bodrossy L, van Overbeek L, Brar D, van Elsas JD, Reinhold-Hurk B (2012) Functional characteristics of an endophyte community colonizing rice roots as revealed by metagenomic analysis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 25:28–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Siciliano SD, Fortin N, Mihoc A, Wisse G, Labelle S, Beaumier D, Ouellette D, Roy R, Whyte LG, Banks MK, Schwab P, Lee K, Greer CW (2001) Selection of specific endophytic bacterial genotypes by plants in response to soil contamination. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1469–2475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Simberloff D, Stiling P (1996) How risky is biological control? Ecology 77:1965–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Strobel GA (2002) Rainforest endophytes and bioactive products. Crit Rev Biotechnol 22:315–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Strobel G, Daisy B (2003) Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:491–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Strobel G, Daisy B, Castillo U, Harper J (2004) Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. J Nat Prod 67:257–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Surette MA, Sturz AV, Lada RR, Nowak J (2003) Bacterial endophytes in processing carrots (Daucus carota L. var. sativus): their localization, population density, biodiversity and their effects on plant growth. Plant Soil 253:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taghavi S, Barac T, Greenberg B, Borremans B, Vangronsveld J, van der Lelie D (2005) Horizontal gene transfer to endogenous endophytic bacteria from poplar improves phytoremediation of toluene. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8500–8505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Taghavi S, Garafola C, Monchy S (2009) Genome survey and characterization of endophytic bacteria exhibiting a beneficial effect on growth and development of poplar trees. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:748–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tan RX, Zou WX (2001) Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites. Nat Prod Rep 18:448–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tan Z, Hurek T, Reinhold-Hurek B (2003) Effect of N-fertilization, plant genotype and environmental conditions of nifH gene pools in roots of rice. Environ Microbiol 6:1009–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tejesvi MV, Kini KR, Prakash HS, Subbiah V, Shetty HS (2007) Genetic diversity and antifungal activity of species of Pestalotiopsis isolated as endophytes from medicinal plants. Fungal Divers 24:37–54Google Scholar
  89. Thane U, Adler A, Clasen P-E, Galvano F, Langseth W, Lew H, Logrieco A, Nielsen KF, Ritieni A (2004) Diversity in metabolite production by Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium sporotrichioides. Int J Food Microbiol 95:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. United States National Research Council, Board Agric (1993) Pesticides in the diets of infants and children. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 408 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Lanteren JC, Babendreier D, Bigler F, Burgio G, Hokkanen HMT, Kuske S, Loomans AJM, Menzler-Hokkanen I, Van Rijn PCJ, Thomas MB, Tommasini MG, Zeng QQ (2003) Environmental risk assessment of exotic natural enemies used in innudative biological control. Biocontrol 48:3–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Verma SC, Ladha JK, Tripathi AK (2001) Evaluation of plant growth promoting and colonization ability of endophytic diazotrophs from deep water rice. J Biotechnol 91:127–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weller DM (1988) Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Ann Rev Phytopathol 26:379–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weyens N, van der Lelie D, Taghavi S, Newman L, Vangronsveld J (2009a) Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation. Curr Trends Biotechnol 27:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weyens N, van der Lelie D, Taghavi S, Vangronsveld J (2009b) Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge. Curr Opin Biotechnol 20:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Weyens N, Taghavi S, Barac T, Lelie D, Jana B, Artois T, Carleer R, Vangronsveld J (2009c) Bacteria associated with oak and ash on a TCE-contaminated site: characterization of isolates with potential to avoid evapotranspiration of TCE. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:830–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Xin G, Zhang G, Kang JW, Staley JT, Doty SL (2009) A diazotrophic, indole-3-acetic acid-producing endophyte from wild cotton wood. Biol Fertil Soils 45:669–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yousaf S, Ripka K, Reichenauer TG, Andria V, Afzal M, Sessitsch A (2010a) Hydrocarbon degradation and plant colonization by selected bacterial strains isolated from Italian ryegrass and birdsfoot trefoil. J Appl Microbiol 109:1389–1401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yousaf S, Andria V, Reichenauer TG, Smalla K, Sessitsch A (2010b) Phylogenetic and functional diversity of alkane degrading bacteria associated with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) in a petroleum oil-contaminated environment. J Hazard Mater 184:523–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yousaf S, Afzal M, Reichenauer TG, Brady CL, Sessitsch A (2011) Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains. Environ Pollut 159:2675–2683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yu H, Zhang L, Li L, Zheng C, Guo L, Li W, Sun P, Qin L (2010) Recent developments and future prospects of antimicrobial metabolites produced by endophytes. Microbiol Res 165:437–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang X, Lin L, Zhu Z, Yang X, Wang Y, An Q (2012) Colonization and modulation of host growth and metal uptake by endophytic bacteria of Sedum alfredii. Int J Phytoremediat 15:51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhuang X, Chen J, Shim H, Bai Z (2007) New advances in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for bioremediation. Environ Int 33:406–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Plant BiologyOhio UniversityAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations