Advertisement

Myconanosynthesis: Redefining the Role of Microbial Endophytes

  • Santosh Kumar Singh
  • Amit Ranjan
  • Shriti Singh
  • Swechha Anand
  • Vijay Chandra Verma
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, a surge of interest was observed in synthesizing nanoparticles and other highly structured nanomaterials using microbes. Plenty of reports in cited domain claims synthesis of nanomaterials with desired shape, size and architecture through fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. More precisely, fungi are frequently reported for their pivotal potential in bioreduction of the aqueous metal ions into their respective nanomaterials. The sporadic reports of nanomaterial synthesis from fungi led to the development of ‘myconanotechnology’ as a new domain of nanotechnology. This newly emerging domain of nanotechnology attracts not only the microbiologist but also material chemists and technologists, because of safe, sustainable and non-toxic ‘green chemistry’ associated with it. There is possibility of getting a total control over shape and size in a microbial system more easily than chemical methods. So far, a number of fungal strains have been reported for this potential among which some most common are Aspergillus, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Penicillium, Verticillium, etc. However, the exact mechanism of this mycoreduction is not known so far, but it is speculated that fungal enzymes and/or metabolites are usually responsible for reduction of metal ions into their respective nanoparticles. Although many soil and pathogenic fungi have been reported as nano-factories of desired metals, relatively few reports are available about the synthesis of nanomaterials using fungal endophytes. It’s surprising since fungal endophytes occupying the unusual habitat have potential to survive under stress conditions and thus must have set of enzymes and metabolites not found in their wild-type counterparts. For this reason, fungal endophytes could be a better candidate for synthesizing nanomaterials. We, in this review, provide a brief review of recent account about endophyte-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials.

Keywords

Silver Nanoparticles Gold Nanoparticles Endophytic Fungus Endophytic Bacterium Minimum Bactericidal Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India. Thanks are also due to Professor-in-Charge, Centre of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, for his support.

References

  1. Acharya K, Chattopadhyay D, Patra S, Sarkar J, Saha S (2011) Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and investigation of their antimicrobial activity. J NanoSci NanoEng Appl 1:17–26Google Scholar
  2. Afreen RV, Ranganath E (2011) Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against MDR strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from burnt patients. Int J Environ Sci 1:1582–1592Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad A, Mukherjee P, Senapati S, Mandal D, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2003a) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids Surf B 28:313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad A, Senapati S, Khan MI, Kumar R, Sastry M (2003b) Extracellular biosynthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles by a novel extremophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora sp. Langmuir 19:3550–3553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alappat CF, Kannan KP, Vasanthi NS (2012) Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using the endophytic fungi isolated from Bauhinia variegata L. Eng Sci Tech Int J 2:377–380Google Scholar
  6. Anitha TS, Palanivelu P (2011) Synthesis and structural characterization of polydisperse silver and multishaped gold nanoparticles using Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 6:1587–1595Google Scholar
  7. Baker S, Shreedharmurthy S (2012a) Antimicrobial activity and biosynthesis of nanoparticles by endophytic bacterium inhabiting Coffee arabica L. Sci J Biol Sci 1:107–113Google Scholar
  8. Baker S, Shreedharmurthy S (2012b) Endophytes: toward a vision in synthesis of nanoparticle for future therapeutic agents. Int J Bio Inorg Hybrid Nanomater 1:67–77Google Scholar
  9. Bharathidasan R, Panneerselvam A (2012) Biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using endophytic fungi Aspergillus conicus, Penicillium janthinellum and Phomopsis sp. IJPSR 3:3163–3169Google Scholar
  10. Binupriya AR, Sathishkumarb M, Vijayaraghavanb K, Yuna S-I (2010) Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis. J Hazard Mater 177:539–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro-Longoria E, Vilchis-Nestor AR, Avalos-Borja M (2011) Biosynthesis of silver, gold and bimetallic nanoparticles using the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Colloids Surf B 83:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen GQ, Zou ZJ, Zeng GM, Yan M, Fan JQ, Chen AW, Yang F, Zhang WJ, Wang L (2011) Coarsening of extracellularly biosynthesized cadmium crystal particles induced by thioacetamide in solution. Chemosphere 83:1201–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Devi NN, Shankar DP, Sutha S (2012) Biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles from an endophytic fungus and their antimicrobial efficacy. Int J Biomed Adv Res 3:409–415Google Scholar
  14. Du L, Xian L, Feng JX (2011) Rapid extra-/intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Penicillium sp. J Nanopart Res 13:921–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El-Rafie MH, Mohamed AA, Shaheen THI, Hebeish A (2010) Antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles produced by fungal process on cotton fabrics. Carbohydr Polym 80:779–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fayaz M, Balaji K, Girilal M, Yadav R, Kalaichelvan PT, Venketesan R (2010) Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 6:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gade A, Bonde PP, Ingle AP, Marcato P, Duran N, Rai MK (2008) Exploitation of Aspergillus niger for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. J Biobased Mater Bioenergy 2:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gade A, Ingle A, Whiteley C, Rai M (2010) Mycogenic metal nanoparticles: progress and applications. Biotechnol Lett 32:593–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gade A, Rai M, Kulkarni S (2011) Phoma sorghina, a phytopathogen mediated synthesis of unique silver rods. Int J Green Nanotechnol 3:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hemath NKS, Kumar G, Karthik L, Bhaskara Rao KV (2010) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the filamentous fungus Penicillium sp. Arch Appl Sci Res 2:161–167Google Scholar
  21. Ingle A, Gade A, Pierrat S, Sönnichsen C, Rai M (2008) Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium acuminatum and its activity against some human pathogenic bacteria. Curr Nanosci 4:141–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jain N, Bhargava A, Majumdar S, Tarafdar JC, Panwar J (2010) Extracellular biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism perspective. Nanoscale 3:635–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li G, He D, Qian Y, Guan B, Gao S, Cui Y, Yokoyama K, Wang L (2012) Fungus-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus terreus. Int J Mol Sci 13:466–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mandal D, Bolander ME, Mukhopadhyay D, Sarkar G, Mukherjee P (2006) The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application. Appl Environ Biotechnol 69:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moharrer S, Mohammad B, Gharamohammad RA, Yargol M (2012) Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soil of Ahar copper mine. Indian J Sci Technol 5:2443–24447Google Scholar
  26. Mukherjee P, Ahmad A, Mandal D, Senapati S, Sainkar SR, Khan MI, Ramani R, Parischa R, Ajayakumar PV, Alam M, Sastry M, Kumar R (2001) Bioreduction of AuCl4 ions by the fungus Verticillium sp. and surface trapping of the gold nanoparticles formed. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 40:3585–3588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Namasivayam SKR, Avimanyu (2011) Silver nanoparticle synthesis from Lecanicillium lecanii and evolutionary treatment on cotton fabrics by measuring their improved antibacterial activity with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and E. coli (ATCC 25922) strains. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3:190–195Google Scholar
  28. Navazi ZR, Pazouki M, Halek FS (2010) Investigation of culture conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus fumigates. Iran J Biotechnol 8:61Google Scholar
  29. Pandiarajan G, Govindaraj R, Kumar M, Ganesan V (2010) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using silver nitrate through biotransformation. J Ecobiotechnol 2:13–18Google Scholar
  30. Qian Y, Yu H, He D, Yang H, Wang W, Wan X, Wang L (2012) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum and their activity against pathogenic fungi. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. doi: 10.1007/s00449-013-0937-z Google Scholar
  31. Raheman F, Deshmukh S, Ingle A, Gade A, Rai M (2011) Silver nanoparticles: Novel antimicrobial agent synthesized from an endophytic fungus Pestalotia sp. isolated from leaves of Syzygium cumini (L). Nano Biomed Eng 3:174–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ray S, Sarkar S, Kundu S (2011) Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the mycorrhizal mushroom Tricholoma crassum BERK, its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungus, including multidrug resistant plant and human bacteria. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 6:1299Google Scholar
  33. Saha S, Sarkar J, Chattopadhyay D, Patra S, Chakraborty A, Acharya K (2010) Production of silver nanoparticles by a phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris nodulosa and its antimicrobial activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 5:887–895Google Scholar
  34. Saha S, Chattopadhyay D, Acharya K (2011) Preparation of silver nanoparticles by bio-reduction using Nigrospora oryzae culture filtrate and its antimicrobial activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 6:1519–1528Google Scholar
  35. Salunkhe RB, Patil SV, Salunke BK, Patil CD, Sonawane AM (2011) Studies on silver accumulation and nanoparticle synthesis by Cochliobolus lunatus. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 165:221–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sanghi R, Verma P, Puri S (2011) Enzymatic formation of gold nanoparticles using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Adv Chem Eng Sci 1:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sarkar J, Chattopadhyay D, Patra S, Deo SS, Sinha S, Ghosh M, Mukherjee A, Acharya K (2011a) Alternaria alternata mediated synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles and their genotoxic activity. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 6:563–573Google Scholar
  38. Sarkar J, Dey P, Saha S, Acharya K (2011b) Mycosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles. IET Micro Nano Lett 6:599–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sastry M, Ahmad A, Khan MI, Kumar R (2003) Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycete. Curr Sci 85:162–170Google Scholar
  40. Sawle BD, Salimath B, Deshpande R, Bedre MD, Prabhakar KB, Venkataraman A (2008) Biosynthesis and stabilization of Au and Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles by fungus Fusarium semitectum. Sci Technol Adv Mater 9:9035012Google Scholar
  41. Shankar SS, Ahmad A, Pasricha R, Sastry M (2003) Bioreduction of chloroaurate ions by Geranium leaves and its endophytic fungus yields gold nanoparticles of different shapes. J Mater Chem 13:1822–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Singh P, Balaji R (2011) Biological synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 2:600–605Google Scholar
  43. Sunkar S, Nachiyar CV (2012a) Microbial synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus: a novel source in the benign synthesis. GJMR 12:43–49Google Scholar
  44. Sunkar S, Nachiyar CV (2012b) Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2:930–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thomas R, Jasim B, Mathew J, Radhakrishnan EK (2012) Extracellular synthesis of sliver nanoparticles by endophytic Bordetella sp. isolated from Piper nigrum and its antibacterial activity analysis. Nano Biomed Eng 4:183–187Google Scholar
  46. Vahabi K, Ali MG, Karimi S (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by fungus Trichoderma reesei a route for large-scale production of AgNPs. Insci J 1:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Verma VC, Kharwar RN, Strobel GA (2009) Chemical and functional diversity of natural products from plant associated endophytes. Nat Prod Commun 4:1511–1532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Verma VC, Kharwar RN, Gange AC (2010) Biosynthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus clavatus. Nanomedicine (UK) 5:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Verma VC, Singh SK, Solanki R, Prakash S (2011) Biofabrication of anisotropic gold nanotriangles using extract of endophytic Aspergillus clavatus as a dual functional reductant and stabilizer. Nanoscale Res Lett 6:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Verma VC, Anand S, Ulrichs C, Singh SK (2013) Biogenic gold nanotriangles from Saccharomonospora sp., an endophytic actinomycetes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Int Nano Lett 3:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vigneshwaran N, Ashtaputre NM, Varadarajan PV, Nachane RP, Paralikar KM, Balasubramanya RH (2007) Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Mater Lett 61:1413–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santosh Kumar Singh
    • 1
  • Amit Ranjan
    • 1
  • Shriti Singh
    • 1
  • Swechha Anand
    • 1
  • Vijay Chandra Verma
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Centre of Experimental Medicine and Surgery (CEMS), Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations