Endophytes as a Novel Source of Bioactive New Structures
Fighting the existing and emerging diseases is one of the big challenges of this age, as the appearance of drug-resistant pathogens is an alarming phenomenon, globally. To address this matter of urgency, researchers and pharmaceutical companies have to revive efforts to develop completely new classes of pharmaceuticals. Natural products have proved a fascinating resource in the continued search for new drug candidates. Among various natural sources, microorganisms represent a sustainable and reproductive source of bioactive compounds, where endophytes are considered a hidden component. Endophytes have fascinating potential for a source of new drug leads as they have capacity to synthesize organic compound of diverse structural features. Most of the promising natural products are available only in extremely small quantities, which necessitate substantial efforts to produce required amounts for pharmacological testing. In addition, many natural products have highly complex structures, complicating commercial production through chemical synthesis. The majority of such drug candidates remains pharmacologically undeveloped due to the perceived supply problem and anticipated higher production costs. Therefore, new methods and techniques such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics are needed to facilitate production of such compounds for pharmaceutical industry.
KeywordsEndophytic Fungus Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Marine Fungus Pichia Guilliermondii Natural Product Discovery
This chapter is dedicated to Profs. Drs. Magda Nasr and Hassan-Elrady A. Saad, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University. The Egyptian Government is thanked for financial support to Dr. M. Elsebai.
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