Diversity and Ecology of Endophytic and Epiphytic Fungi of Tree Leaves in Japan: A Review

  • Takashi Osono


The phyllosphere is the living leaf as a whole and is colonized by endophytic and epiphytic fungi in the interior and on the surface of leaves, respectively. In this chapter, I summarize studies on the diversity and ecology of endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi on live leaves of trees in Japan. Studies to date have detected endophytes and epiphytes on leaves of at least 255 coniferous and broad-leaved tree species in 69 plant families, according to 45 papers published since 1990. These studies have recorded 24 endophytic and 22 epiphytic genera of fungi. Major trees used in the ecological studies of phyllosphere fungi include pines (Pinus), beech (Fagus), and dogwood (Swida). Focal topics include (1) the infection and colonization of leaves; (2) seasonal and leaf age-dependent patterns of temporal changes; (3) spatial distribution at various scales, from within-leaf, to within-canopy, to altitudinal and geographic distributions; (4) direct and indirect roles in decomposition of dead leaves; and (5) interaction with pathogens and herbivores and effects of simulated acid rain. Future research directions in Japan are suggested and discussed with reference to international literature on the ecology of endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi.


Endophytic Fungus Gall Midge Dead Leaf Simulated Acid Rain Cladosporium Cladosporioides 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I thank Dr. Elizabeth Nakajima for her critical reading of the manuscript. This work has received partial financial support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (No. 23770083), the global COE program A06 to Kyoto University, and Grants for Excellent Graduate Schools, MEXT, Japan.


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© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Ecological ResearchKyoto UniversityOtsuJapan

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