Managing Competitiveness Through Flexibility in Telecom Industry of India: A Policy Perspective

  • Manoj Kumar Sharma
Part of the Flexible Systems Management book series (FLEXSYS)


Globalization and liberalization are the major factors in catalyzing the dynamics of national policy making of any nation. These two factors are also responsible for creating pressures on enhancing innovations in products and services leading to competitiveness in any sector of economy.

Globalization brings with it a whole set of international and cross-border regulatory issues and a requirement for multilateral regulatory forums. For example, IT-enabled services, international financial services, and e-commerce entail the transfer of data across borders, and these activities raise the issue inter alia of privacy.

This chapter examines how the timely and appropriate government regulation enhances the flexibility and competitiveness in telecom sector in India. This chapter reviews the nature of regulation in current globalization scenario and its impact on competition leading to better performance and describes the strategies adopted by Indian government as telecom regulator to build competition by creating freedom of choice (flexibility) for both industry players (telecom operators) and the customers using their services.

This chapter concludes by reemphasizing on the need of proactive role of government as a regulator in creating flexibilities to cope up the pressures on enhancing the competitiveness in the highly paced environment of globalization and liberalization. Further, this chapter gives an indicative road map for other developing countries that shows what kinds of telecom policy/regulation are needed in the current international scenario of globalization and change of technology. This is to achieve competitiveness through flexibility route while not compromising the fundamentals of quality and price of products and services in telecom services.


Mobility Service Mobile Telephony Telecom Service International Telecommunication Union Strategic Flexibility 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaker DA, Mascarenhas B (1984) The need for strategic flexibility. J Bus Strategy 5(2):74–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aalst W (2000) Loosely coupled inter-organizational workflows: modeling and analyzing workflows crossing organizational boundaries. Info Manag 37(2):67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amor D (1999) The e-business (R) evolution: living and working in an interconnected world. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  4. Ansoff I (1965) Corporate strategy. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumol WJ, McLennan K (1985) US productivity performance and its implications, productivity growth and US competitiveness. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Borrus M (1983) Trade and development in the semiconductor industry: Japanese challenges and American response, American industry in international competition. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  7. Byrd TA, Turner DE (2001) An exploratory examination of the relationship between flexible IT infrastructure and competitive advantage. Info Manag 39:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clemons EK, Row M (1991) Sustaining IT advantage: the role of structural differences. MIS Q 15(3):275–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Contractor FJ, Lorange P (2002) The growth of alliances in the knowledge-based economy. Int Bus Rev 11:485–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. D’souza DE, Williams FP (2000) Toward a taxonomy of manufacturing flexibility dimensions. J Oper Manag 18(5):577–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidson W (1999) Beyond re-engineering: the three phases of business transformation. IBM Syst J 38(2/3):485–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dreyer B, Gronhaug K (2004) Uncertainty, flexibility and sustained competitive advantage. J Bus Res 57:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duysters G, Kok G, Vaandrager M (2000) Crafting successful strategic technology partnership. R & D Manag 29(4):343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eppink DJ (1978) Planning for strategic flexibility. Long Range Plann 11(4):9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gronhaug K (1999) Technological flexibility and organizational buying strategies. Eur J Purch Supply Manag 5:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta LC (1983) Financial ratios of monitoring corporate sickness: towards a more systematic approach. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrigan KR (1985) Strategic flexibility: the economics of strategic planning. Lexington Books, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Hays RH, Wheelright SC (1983) Restoring our competitiveness edge: computing through manufacturing. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (1984) The missing link, Report of the Independent (Maitland) Commission for Worldwide Telecommunication Development. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  20. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (2007) Communications: government and business practices in the Asia Pacific Region, Report. International Telecommunication Union, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  21. Jain PK, Sushil (2000) Financial flexibility for corporate performance. In: Cornerstones of enterprise flexibility, Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management. Vikas Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  22. Jipp A (1963) Wealth of nations and telephone density. Telecommunication J 30(1):199–201Google Scholar
  23. Kaplan RS, Norton DP (1993) Putting the balanced scorecard to work. Harv Bus Rev 71:134–147Google Scholar
  24. Kaplan RS, Norton DP (1996a) Using the balanced scorecard as a strategic management systems. Harv Bus Rev 74:75–85Google Scholar
  25. Kaplan RS, Norton DP (1996b) Translating strategy into action: the balanced score card. Harvard Business School Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  26. Katz E, Kahn RL (1966) The social psychology of organizations. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim Eun-Ju, ITU (2001) Policy and regulatory overview. Interconnection Workshop, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  28. Krugman P (1983) New theory of trade and industrial countries. Am Econ Rev 73(2):343–347Google Scholar
  29. Krugman P (1986) Introduction to new thinking about trade policy, strategic trade policy and the new international economies. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Krugman P (1987) Strategic sectors and international competition, the US trade policies in changing world economies. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  31. Malhotra Y (2001) Enabling next generation e-business architectures: balancing integration and flexibility for managing business transformation. Brint Institute, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Mowlana H, Wilson LJ (1990) The passing of modernity: communication and the transformation of the society. Longman, New York, pp 43–75Google Scholar
  33. Oliver RW (2001) Real-time strategy: what is strategy, anyway? J Bus Strategy 22(6):7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Papadakis M (1994) Did (or does) the US have a competitiveness Crisis? J Policy Anal Manage 13(1):1–20Google Scholar
  35. Papazoglou MP, Ribbers P, Tsalgatidou A (2000) Integrated values chains and their implications from a business and technology standpoint. Decis Support Syst 29:323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Parsons GL (1983) Information technology: a new competitive weapon. Sloan Manage Rev 25:3–14Google Scholar
  37. Phan DD (2001) E-business management strategies: a business-to-business case study. Info Syst Manag 18(4):61–69Google Scholar
  38. Porter ME (1980) Industry structure and competitive strategy: keys to profitability. Financ Anal J 36:30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Porter ME (1990) The competitive advantage of nations. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Porter ME (2001) Strategy and the internet. Harv Bus Rev 79(3):62–78Google Scholar
  41. Rayport JF, Jaworski BJ (2001) Introduction to e-Commerce. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Rugman AM (2006) The rise of the regional multinationals. Int J Glob Bus Competitiveness 2(1):9–17Google Scholar
  43. Sethi AK, Sethi SP (1990) Flexibility in manufacturing: a survey. Int J Flex Manuf Syst 2(4):289–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shi D, Daniels RL (2003) A survey of manufacturing flexibility: implications for e-business flexibility. IBM Syst J 42(3):414–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sushil (1997) Flexible systems management an evolving paradigm. Syst Res Behav Sci 14(4):259–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sushil (1999) Flexibility in management, Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management. Vikas Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  47. Sushil (2000) Systemic flexibility. Glob J Flex Syst Manag 1(1):77–80Google Scholar
  48. Sushil (2012) Flowing stream strategy: leveraging strategic change with continuity. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Sushil and Kak A (1997) Global competitiveness with core competence: a study of HCL. International Conference of Technology (ICMOT) Proceedings, IIT, Delhi, pp 75–84Google Scholar
  50. Teece DJ, Pisano G, Shuen A (1997) Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strat Manag J 18(7):509–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Trigeorgis L (1993) Real options and interactions with financial flexibility. Financ Manag 22:202–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tyson LD (1988) Making policies for national competitiveness in a changing world, cooperation and competition in the global economy. Ballinger Publishing Co, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Tyson LD (1992) Who’s bashing whom? IIE, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  54. Vernon R (1966) International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Q J Econ 80:190–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Volberda HW (1996) Towards the flexible form: how to remain vital in hypercompetitive environments. Organ Sci 7(4):359–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Volberda HW (1998) Building the flexible firm: how to remain competitive. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar


  1. Annual Report 2011–12 of TRAI, New Delhi, India (11th January, 2013)Google Scholar
  2. The Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicators July - September, 2012, of TRAI, New Delhi, India (11th January, 2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management StudiesJSS Academy of Technical Education (JSS Mahavidyapeethata)NoidaIndia
  2. 2.Faculty of ManagementMahamaya Technical University (MTU Noida)NoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations