Proteins are macromolecules and the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. The post-genomic era focuses on the complete understanding of the structure and functions of proteins. Proteome, the protein complement of a given cell at a specific time is the main focus of proteomics. Proteomics has recently been of interest to scientists because it gives a much better understanding of an organism than genomics. A number of advanced techniques such as 2D-gel electrophoresis, HPLC, Mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF, NMR, DNA microarray, etc., are used for the study of proteomics. The most important applications of proteomics are in the discovery of biomarkers and drug targets. It will also be useful in diseases which involve multigenes, e.g., cancer, diabetes II, asthma, hypertension, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. This chapter focuses on the basic steps involved, techniques used, and applications of proteomics.
KeywordsProtein Identification Flourescence Resonance Energy Transfer Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Amino Acid Side Chain Peptide Mass Fingerprinting
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