A biosensor is an analytical tool used for qualitative and quantitative detection of analyte. It incorporates a biological recognition element such as enzyme, microbial cell, receptor, DNA, antibody, antigen, etc., which interacts with the analyte to produce primary response. This initial response is identified and converted into a suitable electronic form with the help of a suitable transducer device. Selection of transducer is based on the type of signal obtained from the interaction of biological recognition element and analyte. The commonly used devices are electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal transducer. To insure accurate response, suitable immobilization techniques are required for biological recognition elements, which provide proper interaction of transducer with the signal obtained from primary sensing. Adsorption, cross-linking, entrapment, and covalent binding are some commonly applied techniques for immobilization. The electronic signal obtained from transducer may easily be modified, amplified, displayed, and recorded by suitable electronic devices. The use of biological component for sensing makes the biosensor very specific, fast, and reliable, thus biosensors are nowadays utilized in various industries for monitoring such as food quality control, medical research, clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, agriculture, bioprocess monitoring and control, and pharmaceutical industry, etc.


Biological Oxygen Demand Biological Component Glucose Biosensor Immobilization Technique Membrane Transport Protein 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biochemical Engineering DepartmentBT Kumaon Institute of TechnologyDwarahatIndia
  2. 2.Electronics and Communication Engineering DepartmentBT Kumaon Institute of TechnologyDwarahatIndia

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