Interior of the Earth

Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


The Core, Mantle and Crust constitute the three main layers of earth (Fig. 5.1). Compositionally (chemically), the outer thin crust is mostly silicate (SiO2-based) and mantle, the layer below is accompanied by metal oxides (such as MgO, FeO, Al2O3, CaO, and Na2O) in mineral composition (Taylor and McLennan 1985) (see also Fig.  4.3 in the previous chapter). Mantle is the largest by volume, making up almost 87 % of the earth. The base of the mantle to the center of the earth (the last 1/8 volume), is made up of iron (90 %), nickel (5 %) with a possible admixture of carbon, silicon, oxygen, sulfur, and hydrogen (comprising around 5 % by mass).


Seismic Wave Continental Crust Oceanic Crust Inner Core Seismic Velocity 
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© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

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