How Mangroves Resist Natural Disaster?

  • Abhijit Mitra


A natural disaster (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide and tsunami) is the consequence of transformation of a potential hazard into physical event and its subsequent adverse impact on human beings. Natural disasters are caused by several agents that may be broadly divided into climatic and geological components (Table 3.1).


Tropical Cyclone Storm Surge Mangrove Forest Mangrove Species Mangrove Ecosystem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Important References

  1. Abbott PL (2006) Natural disasters. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, BostonGoogle Scholar
  2. Alongi DM (1998) Coastal ecosystem processes. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  3. Badola R, Hussain SA (2005a) Valuing the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environ Conserv 32(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badola R, Hussain SA (2005b) Environmental benefits of mangrove forests: perceptions of local people from the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. Int Forest Rev 7(5):223Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee M (1999) A report on the impact of Farakka barrage on the human fabric. Report submitted to World Commission on Dams on behalf of South Asian Network on Dams, Rivers and People (SANDRP), 29ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Belperio AP (1993) Land subsidence and sea-level rise in the Port-Adelaide estuary – implications for monitoring the Greenhouse-effect. Aust J Earth Sci 40(4):359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blasco F, Saenger P, Janodet E (1996) Mangroves as indicators of coastal change. Catena 27:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brinkman RM, Massel SR, Ridd PV, Furukawa K (1997) Surface wave attenuation in mangrove forests. Pac Coasts Ports 97(2):941–946Google Scholar
  9. Britsch LD, Kemp EB (1990) Land loss rates: Mississippi River deltaic plain. US Corps of engineers technical report GL-90-2. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatenoux B, Peduzzi P (2007) Impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: analysing the potential protecting role of environmental features. Nat Hazards 40:289–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen R, Twilley RR (1998) A gap dynamics model of mangrove forest development along the gradients of soil salinity and nutrient resources. J Ecol 86:37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chittibabu P, Dube SK, MacNabb JB, Murty TS, Rao AD, Mohanty UC, Sinha PC (2004) Mitigation of flooding and cyclone hazard in Orissa, India. Nat Hazards 31:455–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahdouh-Guebas F, Jayatissa LP, Di Nitto D, Bosire JO, Lo Seen D, Koedam N (2005) How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami? Curr Biol 15:R443–R447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Danielsen F, Sørensen MK, Olwig MF, Selvam V, Parish F, Burgess ND, Hiraishi T, Karunagaran VM, Rasmussen MS, Hansen LB, Quarto A, Suryadiputra N (2005) The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation. Science 310:643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delaune RD, Patrick WH, Lindau CW, Smith CJ (1990) Nitrous oxide and methane emission from Gulf coast wetlands. In: Bouman AF (ed) Soils and the greenhouse effect. Wiley, New York, pp 498–501Google Scholar
  16. Dinar CI (2002) Research on tsunami hazard and its effects on Indonesia coastal region: first year’s activities report. In: Proceedings of the fifth multi-lateral workshop on the development of earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation technologies and their integration for Asia-Pacific Region, Bangkok (5th EqTAP WS)Google Scholar
  17. Dutton IM (1992) Developing a management strategy for coastal wetlands. In: Shafer C, Wang Y (eds) Island environment and coastal development. Nanjing University Press, Nanjing, pp 285–303Google Scholar
  18. Ellison J (1993) Mangrove retreat with rising sea level, Bermuda. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 37:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ellison JC (2000) Chapter 15: How South Pacific mangroves may respond to predicted climate change and sea level rise. In: Gillespie A, Burns W (eds) Climate change in the South Pacific: impacts and responses in Australia, New Zealand, and small Islands states. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellison JC, Stoddart DR (1991) Mangrove ecosystem collapse during predicted sea-level rise: Holocene analogues and implications. J Coast Res 7:151–165Google Scholar
  21. Fujimoto K, Miyagi T, Kikuchi T, Kawana T (1996) Mangrove habitat formation and response to Holocene sea-level changes on Kosrae Island, Micronesia. Mangroves Salt Marshes 1(1):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gilman E (2004) Assessing and managing coastal ecosystem response to projected relative sea-level rise and climate change. Prepared for the International Research Foundation for development forum on small Island developing states: challenges, prospects and international cooperation for sustainable development. Contribution to the Barbados + 10 United Nations international meeting on sustainable development of small Island developing states, Port Louis, 10–14 Jan 2005Google Scholar
  23. Hamzah L, Harada K, Imamura F (1999) Experimental and numerical study on the effect of mangroves to reduce tsunami. Tohoku J Nat Disaster Sci 35:127–132Google Scholar
  24. Harada K, Imamura F (2005) Effects of coastal forest on tsunami hazard mitigation – a preliminary investigation. Adv Nat Technol Hazards Res 23:279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hendry MD, Digerfeldt G (1989) Palaeogeography and palaeoenvironments of a tropical coastal wetland and adjacent shelf during Holocene submergence, Jamaica. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 73:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hiraishi T (2003) Tsunami risk and countermeasure in Asia and Pacific Area: applicability of greenbelt Tsunami prevention in the Asia and Pacific Region. Sixth multi-lateral workshop on development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and its Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region (6th EqTAP WS) organized by Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Center, NIED, Ise-KashikojimaGoogle Scholar
  27. Hiraishi T, Harada K (2003) Greenbelt Tsunami prevention in South Pacific region. Report of the Port and Airport Research Institute 42, 1e23.
  28. Hiraishi T, Koike N (2001) Tsunami risk assessment and management: a practical countermeasure to tsunami risk in Asia and Pacific Region. Fourth multi-lateral workshop on development of earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation technologies and its integration for the Asia-Pacific Region (4th EqTAP WS) Kamakura-City, KanagawaGoogle Scholar
  29. Houghton J, Ding Y, Griggs D, Noguer M, van der Linden P, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson C (eds) (2001) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, 881ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1997) The regional impacts of climate change: assessment of vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Jones M (2002) Climate change – follow the mangroves and sea the rise. National Parks J 46(6)Google Scholar
  32. Kabir MM, Ahmed MMZ, Azam MH, Jakobsen F (2006) Effect of afforestation on storm surge propagation: a mathematical model study. Institute of Water Modeling, Bangladesh, 10 July 2006
  33. Kathiresan K (2003) How do mangrove forests induce sedimentation? Rev Biol Trop 51(2):355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kathiresan K, Rajendran N (2005) Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kennish MJ (2002) Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries. Environ Conserv 29(1):78–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kerr AM, Baird AH, Campbell SJ (2006) Comments on “coastal mangrove forests mitigated Tsunami” by K. Kathiresan and Rajendran, N. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 67:539–541 [Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science, 2005, 65, 601–606]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Koteswaram P (1984) Climate and mangrove forests. Report of the second introductory training course on mangrove ecosystems. Sponsored by UNDP and UNESCO, Goa, pp 29–46Google Scholar
  38. Krauss KW, Allen JA, Cahoon DR (2003) Differential rates of vertical accretion and elevation change among aerial root types in Micronesian mangrove forests. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56:251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Latief H, Hadi S (2007) The role of forests and trees in protecting coastal areas against Tsunamis. In: Braatz S, Fortuna S, Broadhead J, Leslie R (eds) Coastal protection in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami: what role for forests and trees?. Proceedings of the regional technical workshop, Khao Lak, 28–31 Aug 2006, FAO, Bangkok, pp 5–35.
  40. Liu WC, Hsu MH, Wang CF (2003) Modeling of flow resistance in mangrove swamp at mouth of Tidal Keelung River, Taiwan. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 129(2):86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Manson FJ, Loneragan NR, Phinn SR (2003) Spatial and temporal variation in distribution of mangroves in Moreton Bay, subtropical Australia: a comparison of pattern metrics and change detection analyses based on aerial photographs. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 57:653–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Massel SR, Furukawa K, Brinkman RM (1999) Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests. Fluid Dyn Res 24:219–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mazda Y, Wolanski E, King B, Sase A, Ohtsuka D, Magi M (1997) Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove swamps. Mangroves Salt Marshes 1:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mazda Y, Kobashi D, Okada S (2005) Tidal-scale hydrodynamics within mangrove swamps. Wetl Ecol Manage 13:647–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mazda Y, Wolanski E, Ridd PV (2007) The role of physical processes in mangrove environments: manual for the preservation and utilization of mangrove ecosystems. Terrapub, Tokyo, 598ppGoogle Scholar
  46. McCoy ED, Mushinsky HR, Johnson D, Meshaka WE (1996) Mangrove damage caused by Hurricane Andrew on the southwestern coast of Florida. Bull Mar Sci 59(1):1–8Google Scholar
  47. Menezes M, Berger U, Worbes M (2003) Annual growth rings and long-term growth patterns of mangrove trees from the Bragança Peninsula, North Brazil. Wetl Ecol Manage 11:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morris JT, Kjerfve B, Dean JM (1990) Dependence of estuarine productivity on anomalies in mean sea level. Limnol Oceanogr 35:926–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nayman JA, Delaune RD, Patrick WH (1990) Wetland soil formation in the rapidly subsiding Mississippi River deltaic plain: mineral and organic matter relationships. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 31:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ning ZH, Turner RE, Doyle T, Abdollahi KK (2003) Integrated assessment of the climate change impacts on the Gulf Coast region. Gulf Coast Climate Change Assessment Council (GCRCC) and Louisiana State University (LSU) Graphic Services, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  51. Pal AK, Bandyopadhyay MK (1985) The role of mangroves in deltaic morphology: a study in Prentice and Lothian Islands, Sunderbans, W.B. In: Bhosale LJ (ed) The mangroves: proceedings on national symposium on biology, utilization and conservation of mangroves. WWF – India, Kolkata, pp 218–221Google Scholar
  52. Parkinson RW, DeLaune RD, White JC (1994) Holocene sea-level rise and the fate of mangrove forests within the wider Caribbean region. J Coast Res 10:1077–1086Google Scholar
  53. Pernetta JC (1993) Mangrove forests, climate change and sea-level rise: hydrological influences on community structure and survival, with examples from the Indo-West Pacific. A marine conservation and development report. IUCN, Gland, vii + 46ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Qasim SZ (2004) Handbook of tropical estuarine biology. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi, 131ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Reed DJ (1999) Response of mineral and organic components of coastal marsh accretion to global climate change. Curr Top Wetl Biogeochem 3:90–99Google Scholar
  56. Records of districts of West Bengal, Midnapur and 24 Parganas Districts (1906–1907, 1920–1921, 1923–1924) Survey of India map, No. 79 C/1, C/2, C/6Google Scholar
  57. Semeniuk V (1994) Predicting the effect of sea-level rise on mangroves in Northwestern Australia. J Coast Res 10(4):1050–1076Google Scholar
  58. Shrestha ML (ed) (1998) The impact of tropical cyclones on the coastal regions of SAARC countries and their influence in the region. SAARC Meteorological Research Centre, Agargaon, 329ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Snedaker SC (1995) Mangroves and climate change in the Florida and Caribbean region: scenarios and hypotheses. Hydrobiologia 295:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tanaka N, Sasaki Y, Mowjood MIM, Jinadasa KBSN, Homchuen S (2007) Coastal vegetation structures and their functions in tsunami protection: experience of the recent Indian Ocean tsunami. Landsc Ecol Eng 3:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1994) Assessment and monitoring of climatic change impacts on mangrove ecosystems. UNEP regional seas reports and studies. Report no. 154. UNEP, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  62. Vermaat JE, Thampanya U (2006) Mangroves mitigate tsunami damage: a further response. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 69:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vermaat JE, Thampanya U (2007) Erratum to “mangroves mitigate tsunami damage: a further response”. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 75:564 [Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 69 (1–2) (2006) 1–3]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vicente VP (1989) Ecological effects of sea-level rise and sea surface temperatures on mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds and sandy beaches of Puerto Rico: a preliminary evaluation. Sci Cienc 16:27–39Google Scholar
  65. White GF, Haas JE (1975) Assessment of research on natural hazards. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  66. Woodroffe CD (1990) The impact of sea-level rise on mangrove shoreline. Prog Phys Geogr 14:483–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Woodroffe CD (1995) Response of tide-dominated mangrove shorelines in northern Australia to anticipated sea-level rise. Earth Surf Process Landf 20(1):65–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wu Y, Falconer RA, Struve J (2001) Mathematical modeling of tidal currents in mangrove forests. Environ Model Software 16:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations