Land areas which are wet during part or all of the year are referred as wetlands. They are of two types: natural and artificial/constructed/man-made. Vegetation, soil and hydrology form the major components of wetlands. Aquatic plant species form a major part of both natural and constructed wetlands. Aquatic plant species play an important role in oxygen production, nutrient cycling, water quality improvement and sediment stabilization (Mohan and Hosetti 1999).


Hydraulic Retention Time Nitrogen Removal Metal Removal Wetland Plant Submerge Aquatic Vegetation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. Abou-Elela SI, Hellal MS (2012) Municipal wastewater treatment using vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Canna, Phragmites and Cyprus. Ecol Eng 47:209–213Google Scholar
  2. Agudelo CRM, Jaramillo ML, Peñuela G (2012) Comparison of the removal of chlorpyrifos and dissolved organic carbon in horizontal sub-surface and surface flow wetlands. Sci Total Environ 431:271–277Google Scholar
  3. Akratos CS, Papaspyros JNE, Tsihintzis VA (2008) An artificial neural network model and design equations for BOD and COD removal prediction in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Chem Eng 143:96–110Google Scholar
  4. Andreozzi R, Marotta R, Paxéus N (2003) Pharmaceuticals in STP effuents and their solar photodegradation in aquatic environment. Chemosphere 50:1319–1330Google Scholar
  5. Anning AK, Korsah PE, Addo-Fordjour P (2013) Phytoremediation of wastewater with Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia in constructed Wetlands International. J Phytoremediation 15(5):452–464Google Scholar
  6. Baldantoni D, Ligrone R, Alfani A (2009) Macro- and trace-element concentrations in leaves and roots of Phragmites australis in a volcanic lake in Southern Italy. J Geochem Explor 101:e166–e174Google Scholar
  7. Barber JT, Sharma HA, Ensley HE, Polito MA, Thomas DA (1995) Detoxification of phenol by the aquatic angiosperm Lemna gibba. Chemosphere 31:3567–3574Google Scholar
  8. Best EPH, Zappi ME, Fredrickson HL, Sprecher SL, Larson SL, Ochman M (1997) Screening of aquatic and wetland plant species for phytoremediation of explosives-contaminated groundwater from the Iowa army ammunition plant. Annu NY Acad Sci 829:179–194Google Scholar
  9. Best EPH, Sprecher SL, Larson SL, Fredrickson HL, Darlene BF (1999) Environmental behavior of explosives in groundwater in groundwater from the Milan army ammunition plant in aquatic and wetland plant treatments. Removal, mass balances and fate in groundwater of TNT and RDX. Chemosphere 38:3383–3396Google Scholar
  10. Best EP, Miller JL, Larson SL (2012) Tolerance towards explosives, and explosives removal from groundwater in treatment wetland mesocosms. Water Sci Technol 44:515–521Google Scholar
  11. Birch GF, Matthai C, Fazeli MS, Suh JY (2004) Efficiency of a constructed wetland in removing contaminants from stormwater. Wetlands 24:459–466Google Scholar
  12. Boreen AL, Arnold WA, McNeill K (2003) Photo-degradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a review. Aquat Sci 65:320–341Google Scholar
  13. Bostick BC, Hansel CM, La Force MJ, Fendorf S (2001) Seasonal fluctuations in zinc speciation within a contaminated wetland. Environ Sci Technol 35:3823–3829Google Scholar
  14. Braeckevelt M, Reiche N, Trapp S, Wiessner A, Paschke H, Kuschk P, Kaestner M (2011) Chlorobenzene removal efficiencies and removal processes in a pilot-scale constructed wetland treating contaminated groundwater. Ecol Eng 37:903–913Google Scholar
  15. Brix H (1994) Functions of macrophytes in constructed wetlands. Water Sci Technol 29:71Google Scholar
  16. Brix H (1997) Do macrophytes play a role in treatment wetlands? Water Sci Technol 35:11Google Scholar
  17. Budd R, O’geen A, Goh KS, Bondarenko S, Gan J (2011) Removal mechanisms and fate of insecticides in constructed wetlands. Chemosphere 83:1581–1587Google Scholar
  18. Bunluesin S, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P, Upatham S, Lanza GR (2007) Batch and continuous packed column studies of cadmium biosorption by Hydrilla verticillata biomass. J Biosci Bioeng 103:e509–e513Google Scholar
  19. Bustamante MA, Mier MV, Estrada JA, Domíguez CD (2011) Nitrogen and potassium variation on contaminant removal for a vertical subsurface flow lab scale constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol 102:7745–7754Google Scholar
  20. Cai K, Elliott CT, Phillips DH, Scippo M-L, Muller M, Connolly L (2012) Treatment of estrogens and androgens in dairy wastewater by a constructed wetland system. Water Res 46(7):2333–2343Google Scholar
  21. Cambrolle J, Redondo-Gomez S, Mateos-Naranjo E, Figueroa ME (2008) Comparison of the role of two Spartina species in terms of phytostabilization and bioaccumulation of metals in the estuarine sediment. Mar Pollut Bull 56:e2037–e2042Google Scholar
  22. Carty A, Scholz M, Heal K, Gouriveau F, Mustafa A (2008) The universal design, operation and maintenance guidelines for farm constructed wetlands (FCW) in temperate climates. Bioresour Technol 99:6780–6792Google Scholar
  23. Chaudhry Q, Blom-Zandstra M, Gupta S, Joner EJ (2005) Utilising the synergy between plants and rhizosphere microorganisms to enhance breakdown of organic pollutants in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 12:e34–e48Google Scholar
  24. Chen H (2011) Surface-flow constructed treatment wetlands for pollutant removal: applications and perspectives. Wetlands 31:805–814Google Scholar
  25. Cheng X, Liang M, Chen W, Liu X, Chen Z (2009a) Growth and contaminant removal effect of several plants in constructed wetlands. J Integr Plant Biol 51(3):325–335Google Scholar
  26. Cheng X, Chen W, Gu B, Liu X, Chen F, Chen Z, Zhou X, Li Y, Huang H, Chen Y (2009b) Morphology, ecology, and contaminant removal efficiency of eight wetland plants with differing root systems. Hydrobiologia 623:77–85Google Scholar
  27. Choudhary AK, Kumar S, Sharma C (2011) Constructed wetlands: an option for pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem 10(10):3023–3037Google Scholar
  28. Cicek N, Lambert S, Venema HD, Snelgrove KR, Bibeau EL, Grosshans R (2006) Nutrient removal and bio-energy production from Netley-Libau Marsh at Lake Winnipeg through annual biomass harvesting. Biomass Bioenergy 30:529–536Google Scholar
  29. Comino E, Riggio V, Rosso M (2011) Mountain cheese factory wastewater treatment with the use of a hybrid constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 37(11):1673–1680Google Scholar
  30. Conkle JL, White JR, Metcalfe CD (2008) Reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds by a lagoon wetland wastewater treatment system in Southeast Louisiana. Chemosphere 73:1741–1748Google Scholar
  31. Conkle JL, Gan J, Anderson MA (2012) Degradation and sorption of commonly detected PPCPs in wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. J Soils Sediments 12(7):1164–1173Google Scholar
  32. Correa-Galeote D, Marco DE, Tortosa G, Bru D, Philippot L, Bedmar EJ (2013) Spatial distribution of N-cycling microbial communities showed complex patterns in constructed wetland sediments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 83(2):340–351Google Scholar
  33. Cui L, Ouyang Y, Lou Q, Yang F, Chen Y, Zhu W, Luo S (2010) Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecol Eng 36:1083–1088Google Scholar
  34. De Biase C, Reger D, Schmidt A, Jechalke S, Reiche N, Martínez-Lavanchy PM, Rosell M, Van Afferden M, Maier U, Oswald SE, Thullner M (2011) Treatment of volatile organic contaminants in a vertical flow filter: relevance of different removal processes. Ecol Eng 37:1292–1303Google Scholar
  35. DeBusk WF (1998) Evaluation of a constructed wetland for treatment of leachate at a municipal landfill in northwest Florida. In: Mulamoottil G, McBean E, Rovers FA (eds) Constructed wetlands for the treatment of landfill leachates. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  36. DeBusk WF (1999a) Wastewater treatment wetlands: contaminant removal processes. Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, SL155Google Scholar
  37. DeBusk WF (1999b) Wastewater treatment wetlands: applications and treatment efficiency. Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, SL15Google Scholar
  38. DeBusk TA, DeBusk WF (2001) Wetlands for water treatment. In: Kent DM (ed) Applied wetlands science and technology. CRC Press LLC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  39. DeBusk TA, Laughlin RB, Schwartz LN (1996a) Retention and compartmentalization for wastewater treatment: municipal, industrial and agricultural. Water Research 30:2707Google Scholar
  40. DeBusk TA, Peterson JE, Reddy KR (1996b) Use of aquatic and terrestrial plants for removing phosphorus from dairy wastewaters. Ecol Eng 5:371Google Scholar
  41. Deng H, Ye Z, Wong M (2004) Accumulation of lead, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China. Environ Pollut 132:e29–e40Google Scholar
  42. Deng H, Ye Z, Wong M (2006) Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants. Environ Pollut 141:e69–e80Google Scholar
  43. Dhir B (2010) Use of aquatic plants in removing heavy metals from wastewater. Int J Environ Eng 2(1/2/3):185–201Google Scholar
  44. Dhir B, Sharmila P, Pardha SP (2009) Potential of aquatic macrophytes for removing contaminants from the environment. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 39:754–781Google Scholar
  45. Dhote S, Dixit S (2009) Water quality improvement through macrophytes a review. Environ Monit Assess 152:e149–e153Google Scholar
  46. Díaz FJ, Ogeen AT, Dahlgren RA (2012) Agricultural pollutant removal by constructed wetlands: Implications for water management and design. Agric Water Manage 104:171–183Google Scholar
  47. Dorman L, Castle JW, Rodgers JH (2009) Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland system for treating simulated ash basin water. Chemosphere 75:e939–e947Google Scholar
  48. Dotro G, Castro S, Tujchneider O, Piovano N, Paris M, Faggi A, Palazolo P, Fitch M (2012) Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters. J Hazard Mater 239–240:142–151Google Scholar
  49. Fediuc E, Erdei L (2002) Physiological and biochemical aspects of cadmium toxicity and protective mechanisms induced in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia. J Plant Physiol 159:265–271Google Scholar
  50. Fitzgerald EJ, Caffrey JM, Nesaratnam ST, McLoughlin P (2003) Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland. Environ Pollut 123:67–74Google Scholar
  51. Fleming-Singer MS, Horne AJ (2006) Balancing wildlife needs and nitrate removal in constructed wetlands: the case of the Irvine Ranch Water District’s San Joaquin Wildlife Sanctuary. Ecol Eng 26:147–166Google Scholar
  52. Fritioff A, Kautsky L, Greger M (2005) Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants. Environ Pollut 133:265–274Google Scholar
  53. Gao S, Tanji K, Peters D, Lin Z, Terry N (2003) Selenium removal from irrigation drainage water flowing through constructed wetland cells with special attention to accumulation in sediments. Water Air Soil Pollut 144:263Google Scholar
  54. Garcia C, Moreno DA, Ballester A, Blazquez ML, Gonzalez F (2001) Bioremediation of an industrial acid mine water by metal-tolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria. Minerals Eng 14:e997–e1008Google Scholar
  55. García J, Rousseau DPL, Morató J, Lesage E, Matamoros V, Bayona JM (2010) Contaminant removal processes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 40:561–661Google Scholar
  56. Garfí M, Pedescoll A, Bécares E, Hijosa-Valsero M, Sidrach-Cardona R, García J (2012) Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain. Sci Total Environ 437:61–67Google Scholar
  57. Ghermandi A, Bixio D, Thoeye C (2007) The role of free water surface constructed wetlands as polishing step in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse. Sci Total Environ 380:247–258Google Scholar
  58. González-Alcaraz MN, Egea C, Jiménez-Cárceles FJ, Párraga I, María-Cervantes A, Delgado MJ, Álvarez-Rogel J (2012) Storage of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil-plant system of Phragmites australis stands from a eutrophicated Mediterranean salt marsh. Geoderma 185–186:61–72Google Scholar
  59. Gonzalez-Mendoza D, Quiroz-Moreno A, Zapata-Perez O (2007) Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper. Aquat Toxicol 83:e306–e314Google Scholar
  60. Greger M (1999) Metal availability and bioconcentration in plants. In: Pradad MNV, Hagemeyer J (eds) Heavy metal stress in plants: from molecules to ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  61. Gross B, Montgomery-Brown J, Naumann A, Reinhard M (2004) Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and alkylphenol ethoxylate metabolites in an effluent-dominated river and wetland. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2074–2083Google Scholar
  62. Groza N, Manescu A, Panturu E, Filcenco-Olteanu A, Panturu RI, Jinescu C (2010) Uranium wastewater treatment using wetland system. Revista de Chimie 61:680–684Google Scholar
  63. Guan X, Dong H, Ma J, Jiang L (2009) Removal of arsenic from water: effects of competing anions on As(III) removal in KMnO4-Fe(II) process. Water Res (Oxf) 43:e3891–e3899Google Scholar
  64. Gunes K, Tuncsiper B, Ayaz S, Drizo A (2012) The ability of free water surface constructed wetland system to treat high strength domestic wastewater: a case study for the Mediterranean. Ecol Eng 44:278–284Google Scholar
  65. Gustavsson L, Engwall M (2012) Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms – water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal. Waste Manag 32:104–109Google Scholar
  66. Haarstad K, Bavor HJ, Mæhlum T (2012) Organic and metallic pollutants in water treatment and natural wetlands: a review. Water Sci Technol 65(1):76–99Google Scholar
  67. Haber R, Grego S, Langergraber G, Kadlec RH, Cicalini A, Dias SM, Novais JM, Aubert S, Gerth A, Thomas H (2003) Constructed wetlands for the treatment of organic pollutants. JSS J Soils Sediments 3(2):109–124Google Scholar
  68. Hadad HR, Mufarrege MM, Pinciroli M, Di Luca GA, Maine MA (2010) Morphological response of Typha domingensis to an industrial effluent containing heavy metals in a constructed wetland. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:666–675Google Scholar
  69. Hafeznezami S, Kim J, Redman J (2012) Evaluating removal efficiency of heavy metals in constructed wetlands. J Environ Eng 138(4):475–482Google Scholar
  70. Hansel CM, Force MJ, Fendorf S, Fendorf S, Sutton S (2002) Spatial and temporal association of As and Fe species on aquatic plant roots. Environ Sci Technol 36:1988–1994Google Scholar
  71. Hansen D, Duda P, Zayed AM, Terry N (1998) Selenium removal by constructed wetlands: role of biological volatilization. Environ Sci Technol 32:591Google Scholar
  72. He Y, Tao W, Wang Z, Shayya W (2012) Effects of pH and seasonal temperature variation on simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox in free-water surface wetlands. J Environ Manage 110:103–109Google Scholar
  73. Hencha KR, Bissonnettea GK, Sexstonea AJ, Coleman JG, Garbutt K, Skousen JG (2003) Fate of physical, chemical, and microbial contaminants in domestic wastewater following treatment by small constructed wetlands. Water Res 37:921–927Google Scholar
  74. Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Sidrach-Cardona R, Martín-Villacorta J, Bécares E, Bayona JM (2010a) Comprehensive assessment of the design configuration of constructed wetlands for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from urban wastewaters. Water Res 44:3669–3678Google Scholar
  75. Hijosa-Valsero M’a, Matamoros V’c, Martı’n-Villacorta J, Be’cares E, Bayona JM (2010b) Assessment of full-scale natural systems for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater in small communities. Water Res 44:1429–1439Google Scholar
  76. Horne AJ (2000) Phytoremediation by constructed wetlands. In: Terry N, Banuelos G (eds) Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 13–40Google Scholar
  77. Horswell J, Hodge A, Killham K (1997) Influence of plant carbon on the mineralisation of atrazine residues in soils. Chemosphere 34:1739–1751Google Scholar
  78. Idris SM, Jones PL, Salzman SA, Croatto G, Allinson G (2012) Evaluation of the giant reed (Arundo donax) in horizontal subsurface flow wetlands for the treatment of dairy processing factory wastewater. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(8):3525–3537Google Scholar
  79. Imfeld G, Braeckevelt M, Kuschk P, Richnow HH (2009) Monitoring and assessing processes of organic chemicals removal in constructed wetlands. Chemosphere 74(3):349–362Google Scholar
  80. Jackson J (1989) Man-made wetlands for wastewater treatment: two case studies. In: Hammer DA (ed) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: municipal, industrial and agricultural. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  81. Jonsson J, Jonsson J, Lovgren L (2006) Precipitation of secondary Fe(III) minerals from acid mine drainage. Appl Geochem 21:437–445Google Scholar
  82. Kadlec RH (1998) Constructed wetlands for treating landfill leachate. In: Mulamoottil E, McBean G, Rovers FA (eds) Constructed wetlands for the treatment of landfill leachates. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  83. Kadlec RH, Knight RL (1996) Treatment wetlands. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  84. Kadlec RH, Wallace S (2008) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 1048Google Scholar
  85. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  86. Kang J (2012) Purification effect of constructed wetland on TN and TP removal from eutrophic wastewater. Adv Mat Res 356–360:2638–2642Google Scholar
  87. Keskinkan O, Göksu MZL (2007) Assessment of the dye removal capability of submersed aquatic plants in a laboratory-scale wetland system using anova. Braz J Chem Eng 24:193–202Google Scholar
  88. Khan AG, Kuek C, Chaudhry TM, Koo CS, Hayes W (2000) Role of plants, mycorrhizae and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation. Chemosphere 41:197–207Google Scholar
  89. Kidd P, Barcelo J, Pilar Bernal M, Navari-Izzo F, Poschenrieder C, Shilev S, Clemente R, Monterroso C (2009) Trace element behaviour at the root-soil interface: implications in phytoremediation. Environ Exp Bot 67:243–259Google Scholar
  90. Kivaisi AK (2001) The potential for constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries: a review. Ecol Eng 16:545–560Google Scholar
  91. Knight RL, Ruble RW, Kadlec RH, Reed S (1993a) Wetlands for wastewater treatment. J Environ Eng 138:475–482Google Scholar
  92. Knight RL, Ruble RW, Kadlec RH, Reed S (1993b) Wetlands for wastewater treatment: performance database. In: Moshiri GA (ed) Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  93. Knox AS, Dunn D, Paller M, Nelson EA, Specht WL, Seaman JC (2006) Assessment of contaminant retention in constructed wetland sediments. Eng Life Sci 6:31Google Scholar
  94. Knox AS, Nelson EA, Halverson NV, Gladden JB (2010) Long-term performance of a constructed wetland for metal removal. Soil Sediment Contam 19:667–685Google Scholar
  95. Kotti P, Georgios DG, Tsihrintzis A (2010) Effect of operational and design parameters on removal efficiency of pilot-scale FWS constructed wetlands and comparison with HSF systems. Ecol Eng 36(7):862–875Google Scholar
  96. Kraus ML (1988) Accumulation and excretion of five heavy metals by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Bull Nor Acad Sci 33:39–43Google Scholar
  97. Kumar AK, Chiranjeevi P, Mohanakrishna G, Mohan SV (2011) Natural attenuation of endocrine-disrupting estrogens in an ecologically engineered treatment system (eets) designed with floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes. Ecol Eng 37:1555–1562Google Scholar
  98. Kurzbaum E, Kirzhner F, Armon R (2012) Improvement of water quality using constructed wetland systems. Rev Environ Health 27(1):59–64Google Scholar
  99. Lee BH, Scholz M (2007) What is the role of Phragmites australis in experimental constructed wetland filters treating urban runoff? Ecol Eng 29:87–95Google Scholar
  100. Lee S, Maniquiz MC, Choi J, Kang J-H, Jeong S, Kim LH (2012) Seasonal treatment efficiency of surface flow constructed wetland receiving high nitrogen content wastewater. Desalination Water Treat 48(1–3):9–16Google Scholar
  101. Lesage E, Rousseau DPL, Meers E, Van de Moortel AMK, Du Laing G, Tack FMG, De Pauw N, Verloo MG (2007a) Accumulation of metals in the sediment and reed biomass of a combined constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater. Water Air Soil Pollut 183:253Google Scholar
  102. Lesage E, Rousseau DPL, Meers E, Tack FMG, De Pauw N (2007b) Accumulation of metals in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater in Flanders, Belgium. Sci Total Environ 380:102–115Google Scholar
  103. Lin M, Han Y (2012) Treatment of the domestic sewage by the lab-scale sub-surface horizontal-flow wetland. Adv Mater Res 374–377:1036–1039Google Scholar
  104. Livingston EH (1989) Use of wetlands for urban stormwater management. In: Hammer DA (ed) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: municipal, industrial and agricultural. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  105. Lu LL, Tian SK, Yang XE, Li TQ, He ZL (2009) Cadmium uptake and xylem loading are active processes in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. J Plant Physiol 166:579–587Google Scholar
  106. MacFarlane GR, Burchett MD (2000) Cellular distribution of copper, lead and zinc in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Frosk.) Vierh. Aquat Bot 68:45–59Google Scholar
  107. Maine MA, Duarte MV, Suné NL (2001) Cadmium uptake by Pistia stratiotes. Water Res 35:2629–2634Google Scholar
  108. Maine MA, Suné NL, Lagger SC (2004) Chromium bioaccumulation: comparison of the capacity of two floating aquatic macrophytes. Water Res 38:1494–1501Google Scholar
  109. Maine MA, Suné N, Hadad H, Sanchez G, Bonetto C (2009) Influence of the vegetation on the removal of heavy metals and nutrients in a constructed wetland. J Environ Manage 90:355–363Google Scholar
  110. Manios T, Stentiford EI, Millner P (2003) Removal of total suspended solids from wastewater in constructed horizontal flow subsurface wetlands. J Environ Sci Health A 36:1073–1085Google Scholar
  111. Marchand L, Mench M, Jacob DL, Otte ML (2010) Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: a review. Environ Pollut 158:3447–3461Google Scholar
  112. Matagi SV, Swai D, Mugabe R (1998) A review of heavy metal removal mechanisms in wetlands. Afr J Trop Hydrobiol Fish 8:23–35Google Scholar
  113. Matamoros V, Bayona JM (2008) Behavior of emerging pollutants in constructed wetlands handbook. Environ Chem 5:192–217Google Scholar
  114. Matamoros V, Salvadó V (2012) Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants. Chemosphere 86(2):111–117Google Scholar
  115. Matamoros V, Arias C, Brix H, Bayona JM (2007) Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater in a pilot vertical flow constructed wetland and a sand filter. Environ Sci Technol 41:8171–8177Google Scholar
  116. Matamoros V, García J, Bayona JM (2008) Organic micropollutant removal in a full-scale surface flow constructed wetland fed with secondary effluent. Water Res 42:653–660Google Scholar
  117. Matamoros V, Duhec A, Albaigés J, Bayona JM (2009) Photodegradation of carbamazepine, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and 17a-ethinylestradiol in fresh and seawater. Water Air Soil Pollut 196:161–168Google Scholar
  118. Matamoros V, Reyes C, Bayona JM, Valsero MH (2010) Use of constructed wetlands to eliminate organic microcontaminants in domestic effluents. Tecnologia del Agua 30:22–26Google Scholar
  119. Matamoros V, Arias CA, Nguyen LX, Salvadó V, Brix H (2012a) Occurrence and behavior of emerging contaminants in surface water and a restored wetland. Chemosphere 88:1083–1089Google Scholar
  120. Matamoros V, Nguyen LX, Arias CA, Salvadó V, Brix H (2012b) Evaluation of aquatic plants for removing polar microcontaminants: a microcosm experiment. Chemosphere 88:1257–1264Google Scholar
  121. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (2007) Wetlands, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Mohan BS, Hosetti BB (1999) Aquatic plants for toxicity assessment. Environ Res 81:259–274Google Scholar
  123. Monferran MV, Sanchez Agudo JA, Pignata ML, Wunderlin DA (2009) Copper induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus. Environ Pollut 157:2570–2576Google Scholar
  124. Moormann H, Kuschk P, Stottmeister U (2002) The effect of rhizodeposition from helophytes on bacterial degradation of phenolic compounds. Acta Biotechnol 22:107–112Google Scholar
  125. Murray-Gulde CL, Bearr J, Rodgers JH (2005b) Evaluation of a constructed wetland treatment system specifically designed to decrease bioavailable copper in a wastestream. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 61:60–73Google Scholar
  126. Nyquist J, Greger M (2009) A field study of constructed wetlands for preventing and treating acid mine drainage. Ecol Eng 35:630–642Google Scholar
  127. O’Sullivan AD, Moran BM, Otte ML (2004) Accumulation and fate of contaminants (Zn, Pb, Fe and S) in substrates of wetlands constructed for treating mine wastewater. Water Air Soil Pollut 157:345Google Scholar
  128. Obarska-Pempkowiak H, Gajewska M (2003) The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands in Poland. Polish J Environ Stud 12:739–746Google Scholar
  129. Obarska-Pempkowiak H, Gajewska M (2004) The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands in Poland. Wetlands 24(2):459–466Google Scholar
  130. Otte ML, Rozema J, Koster L, Haarsma MS, Broekman RA (1989) Iron plaque on roots of Aster tripolium L. interaction with zinc uptake. New Phytol 111:309–317Google Scholar
  131. Pal R, Rai JPN (2010) Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160:945–963Google Scholar
  132. Pal A, Gin HKY, Lin AYC, Reinhard M (2010) Impacts of emerging organic contaminants on freshwater resources: review of recent occurrences, sources, fate and effects. Sci Total Environ 408:6062–6069Google Scholar
  133. Pedescoll A, Corzo A, Álvarez E, Puigagut J, García J (2011) Contaminant removal efficiency depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands. Ecol Eng 37:372–380Google Scholar
  134. Qian JH, Zayed A, Zhu ML, Yu M, Terry N (1999) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants. III: uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species. J Environ Qual 28:1448Google Scholar
  135. Quintana JB, Weiss S, Reemtsma T (2005) Pathways and metabolites of microbial degradation of selected acidic pharmaceuticals and their occurrence in municipal wastewater treated by a membrane bioreactor. Water Res 39:2654–2664Google Scholar
  136. Rai PK (2008) Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach. Int J Phytoremediation 10:131–158Google Scholar
  137. Rousseau DPL, Lesage E, Story A, Vanrolleghem PA, De Pauw N (2008) Constructed wetlands for water reclamation. Desalination 218:181–189Google Scholar
  138. Sandermann H (1992) Plant metabolism of xenobiotics. Trends Biochem Sci 17(2):82–84Google Scholar
  139. Scholz M, Hedmark A (2010) Constructed wetlands treating runoff contaminated with nutrients. Water Air Soil Pollut 205:323–332Google Scholar
  140. Seeger EM, Kuschk P, Fazekas H, Grathwohl P, Kaestner M (2011) Bioremediation of benzene, MTBE and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands. Environ Pollut 159:3769–3776Google Scholar
  141. Seo DC, Yu K, DeLaune RD (2008) Comparison of monometal and multimetal adsorption in Mississippi River alluvial wetland sediment: batch and column experiments. Chemosphere 73:1757–1764Google Scholar
  142. Shanker AK, Cervantes C, Loza-Tavera H, Avudainayagam S (2005) Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ Int 31:739–753Google Scholar
  143. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2009) The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends Plant Sci 14(1):43–50Google Scholar
  144. Sheoran AS, Sheoran V (2006) Heavy metal removal mechanism of acid mine drainage in wetlands – a critical review. Minerals Eng 19:105–116Google Scholar
  145. Sikora FJ, Behrends LL, Phillips WD, Kelley DA, Coonrod HS, Bailey E (1995) Phytoremediation of explosives-contaminated groundwater in constructed wetlands: I- batch study. U.S. Army Environmental Center report no. SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-96166Google Scholar
  146. Singh R, Tripathi RD, Dwivedi S, Kumar A, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D (2010) Lead bioaccumulation potential of an aquatic macrophyte Najas indica are related to antioxidant system. Bioresour Technol 101:3025–3032Google Scholar
  147. Siracusa G, La Rosa AD (2006) Design of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment in a Sicilian town and environmental evaluation using the energy analysis. Ecol Model 197:490–497Google Scholar
  148. Sobolewski A (1999) A review of processes responsible for metal removal in wetlands treating contaminated mine drainage. Int J Phytoremediation 1:19–51Google Scholar
  149. Stefanakis AI, Tsihrintzis VA (2012) Effect of loading, resting period, temperature, porous media, vegetation and aeration on performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands. Chem Eng J 181–182:416–430Google Scholar
  150. Stottmeister U, Wießner A, Kuschk P, Kappelmeyer U, Ka¨stner M, Bederski O, Mu¨ller RA, Moormann H (2003) Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Biotechnol Adv 22:93–117Google Scholar
  151. Sudarsan JS, Thattai D, Das A (2012) Phyto-remediation of dairy-waste water using constructed wetland. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 3(3):B745–B755Google Scholar
  152. Sundaravadivel M, Vigneswaran S (2001) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 31(4):351–409Google Scholar
  153. Suné N, Sanchez G, Caffaratti S, Maine MA (2007) Cadmium and chromium removal kinetics by two aquatic macrophytes. Environ Pollut 145:467–473Google Scholar
  154. Terry N, Zayed AM, de Souza MP, Tarun AS (2000) Selenium in higher plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:401Google Scholar
  155. Thullen JS, Sartoris JJ, Nelson SM (2005) Managing vegetation in surface-flow wastewater-treatment wetlands for optimal treatment performance. Ecol Eng 25:583–593Google Scholar
  156. Todd J, Brown EJG, Wells E (2003) Ecological design applied. Ecol Eng 20:421–440Google Scholar
  157. United States Environmental Protection Agency (1999) Constructed wetlands treatment of municipal wastewaters; EPA/625/R-99/010; CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  158. Verbruggen N, Hermans C, Schat H (2009) Mechanisms to cope with arsenic or cadmium excess in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:364–372Google Scholar
  159. Vesk PA, Nockold CE, Allaway WG (1999) Metal localization in water hyacinth roots from an urban wetland. Plant Cell Environ 22:149–152Google Scholar
  160. Vymazal J (2005) Horizontal sub-surface flow and hybrid constructed wetlands systems for wastewater treatment. Ecol Eng 25:478–490Google Scholar
  161. Vymazal J (2006) Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 380:48–65Google Scholar
  162. Vymazal J, Sveha J (2012a) The use of integrated constructed wetlands (ICW) for the treatment of separated swine wastewaters. Hydrobiologia 692:111–119Google Scholar
  163. Vymazal J, Sveha J (2012b) Removal of alkali metals and their sequestration in plants in constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage. Hydrobiologia 692:131–143Google Scholar
  164. Vymazal J, Brix H, Cooper PF, Green MB, Haber R (1998) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Europe. Backhuys Publishers, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  165. Vymazal J, Svehla J, Kropfelova L, Chrastny V (2007) Trace metals in Phragmites australis and Phalaris arundinacea growing in constructed and natural wetlands. Sci Total Environ 380:154–162Google Scholar
  166. Wei Z-J, Xie J-P, Huang Y-M (2012) Effect of the subsurface constructed wetland evolution into free surface flow constructed wetland on the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphor in wastewater. Huanjing Kexue/Environ Sci 33(11):3812–3819Google Scholar
  167. Weiss JV, Emerson D, Backer SM, Megonigal JP (2003) Enumeration of Fe(II)-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in the root zone of wetland plants: implications for a rhizosphere iron cycle. Biogeochemistry 64:77–96Google Scholar
  168. Wenzel WW, Adriano DC, Salt D, Smith R (1999) Phytoremediation: a plant–microbe-based remediation system. In: Adriano DC, Bollag JM, Frankenberger WT, Jr Sims RC (eds) Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils, American Society of Agronomy, Agronomy monograph, vol 37, Madison, pp 457–508Google Scholar
  169. Wu H, Li W, Zhang J, Li C, Zhang J, Xie H (2012) Application of using surface constructed wetland for removal of chemical oxygen demand and ammonium in polluted river water. Desalination Water Treat 44:142–150Google Scholar
  170. Yada BK, Siebel MA, van Bruggen JJA (2011) Rhizofiltration of a heavy metal (Lead) containing wastewater using the wetland plant Carex pendula. Clean Soil Air Water 39:467–474Google Scholar
  171. Yang J, Ye Z (2009) Metal accumulation and tolerance in wetland plants. Front Biol China 4(3):282–288Google Scholar
  172. Yang Q, Chen Z, Zhao J, Gu B (2007) Contaminant removal of domestic wastewater by constructed wetlands: effects of plant species. J Integr Plant Biol 49:437–446Google Scholar
  173. Ye ZH, Baker AJM, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1997a) Zinc, lead and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Typha latifolia. New Phytol 136:e469–e480Google Scholar
  174. Ye ZH, Baker AJM, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1997b) Copper and nickel uptake, accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia with and without iron plaque on the root surface. New Phytol 136:481–488Google Scholar
  175. Ye ZH, Baker AJM, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1997c) Zinc, lead and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by the common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin, ex Steudel. Ann Bot 80:363–370Google Scholar
  176. Ye ZH, Lin ZQ, Whiting SN, de Souza MP, Terry N (2003) Possible use of constructed wetland to remove selenocyanate, arsenic, and boron from electric utility wastewater. Chemosphere 52:1571–1579Google Scholar
  177. Yu R, Wu Q, Lu X (2012) Constructed wetland in a compact rural domestic wastewater treatment system for nutrient removal. Environ Eng Sci 29(8):751–757Google Scholar
  178. Zayed A, Gowthaman S, Terry N (1998) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: I. Duckweed. J Environ Qual 27:715–721Google Scholar
  179. Zhang CB, Wang J, Liu WL, Zhu SX, Liu D, Chang SX, Chang J, Ge Y (2010) Effects of plant diversity on nutrient retention and enzyme activities in a fullscale constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol 101:1686–1692Google Scholar
  180. Zhang DQ, Gersberg RM, Hua T, Zhu J, Tuan NA, Tan SK (2012a) Pharmaceutical removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands at varying hydraulic loading rates. Chemosphere 87:273–277Google Scholar
  181. Zhang DQ, Gersberg RM, Zhu J, Hua T, Jinadasa KBSN, Tan SK (2012b) Batch versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetland. Environ Pollut 167:124–131Google Scholar
  182. Zhou Y, Tigane T, Li X, Truu M, Truu J, Mander U (2013) Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination in constructed wetland mesocosms. Water Res 47(1):102–110Google Scholar
  183. Zhu YL, Zayed AM, Qian JH, Souza M, Terry N (1999) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants. II water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). J Environ Qual 28:339Google Scholar
  184. Zwiener C, Frimmel FH (2003) Short-term tests with a pilot sewage plant and biofilm reactors for the biological degradation of the pharmaceutical compounds clofibric acid, ibuprofen and diclofenac. Sci Total Environ 309:201–211Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhupinder Dhir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeneticsUniversity of Delhi South CampusNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations