Soil Rhizobacteria Regulating the Uptake of Nutrients and Undesirable Elements by Plants



Numerous rhizosphere bacteria are known to be beneficial for plant growth. Such bacterial species are generally recognized as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In this chapter, different mechanisms are discussed by which, depending on the specific conditions, plants benefit from growth and development of rhizobacterial population. Such mechanisms directly or indirectly influence plant growth and development. Direct mechanisms are related to phosphorus solubilization, nitrogen fixation, iron chelation, production of phytohormones, and degradation of ethylene production, while the indirect are fitted to suppression of plant phytopathogens and induced systematic resistance in plants. The combination of mechanisms is possible to exist in a habitat where a microbial community composed of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria finds suitable niches for development. This chapter also reviews different combinations of mechanisms presented in soils.


Indole Acetic Acid Pseudomonas Fluorescens Rhizosphere Microorganism Influence Plant Growth Indole Acetic Acid Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge the financial support of Fund “Science investigation” of the Bulgarian Ministry of Education, Youth and Science for Bulgarian part of project COST Action FA0905 “Mineral improved crop production for health food and feed.”


  1. Abel S, Nguyen MD, Chow W, Theologis A (1995) ACS4, a primary indoleacetic acid-responsive gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana: structural characterization, expression in Escherichia coli, and expression characteristics in response to auxin. J Biol Chem 270:19093–19099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2010) Phosphate-solubilizing and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 improves greengram performance in quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop amended soil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:361–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alef K, Nannipieri P (1995) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloni R, Aloni E, Langhans M, Ullrich CI (2006) Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism. Ann Bot 97:883–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Antoun H, Prevost D (2005) Ecology of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Netherlands, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  6. Antoun H, Beauchamp CJ, Goussard N, Chabot R, Lalande R (1998) Potential of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium species as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on non-legumes: effect on radishes (Raphanus sativus L.). Plant Soil 204:57–67Google Scholar
  7. Antoun H, Beauchamp CJ, Goussard N, Gray EJ, Smith DL (2005) Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities and distinctions in the plant–bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol Biochem 37:395–412Google Scholar
  8. Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (1998) Plant growth regulating substances in the rhizosphere. Microbial production and functions. Adv Agron 62:46–151Google Scholar
  9. Baldani JI, Caruso L, Baldani VLD, Goi SR, Döbereiner J (1997) Recent advances in BNF with non-legume plants. Soil Biol Biochem 29:911–922Google Scholar
  10. Barlow PW, Brain P, Parker JS (1991) Cellular growth in roots of a gibberellin-deficient mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its wild-type. J Exp Bot 42:339–351Google Scholar
  11. Bashan Y, Holguin G (1998) Proposal for the division of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria into two classification: biocontrol-PGPB (plant growth-promoting bacteria) and PGPB. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1225–1228Google Scholar
  12. Beattie GA (2006) Plant-associated bacteria: survey, molecular phylogeny, genomics and recent advances. In: Gnanamanickam SS (ed) Plant-associated bacteria. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  13. Bishop PE, Joerger RD (1990) Genetics and molecular biology of an alternative nitrogen fixation system. Plant Mol Biol 41:109–125Google Scholar
  14. Bleecker AB, Kende H (2000) A gaseous signal molecule in plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 16:1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloemberg GV, Lugtenberg BJJ (2001) Molecular basis of plant growth promotion and biocontrol by rhizobacteria. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:343–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Borie F, Zunino H, Martínez L (1989) Macromolecule P-associations and inositol phosphates in sole Chilean volcanic soils of temperate regions. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 20:1881–1894Google Scholar
  17. Bottini R, Cassán F, Piccoli P (2004) Gibberellin production by bacteria and its involvement in plant growth promotion and yield increase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:497–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Broekaert WF, Delauré SL, De Bolle MFC, Cammue BPA (2006) The role of ethylene in host-pathogen interactions. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:393–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cacciari I, Lippi D, Pietrosanti T, Pietrosanti W (1989) Phytohormone-like substances produced by single and mixed diazotrophic cultures of Azospirillum and Arthrobacter. Plant Soil 115:151–153Google Scholar
  20. Carrillo-Castañeda G, Juárez Muños J, Peralta-Videa JR, Gomez E, Tiemann KJ, Duarte-Gardea M, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2002) Alfalfa growth promotion by bacteria grown under iron limiting conditions. Adv Environ Res 6:391–399Google Scholar
  21. Carson KC, Glenn AR, Dilworth MJ (1994) Specificity of siderophore-mediated transport of iron in rhizobia. Arch Microbiol 161:333–339Google Scholar
  22. Chen Z, Ma S, Kiu LL (2008) Study on phosphorus solubilizing activity of a strain of phosphobacteria isolated from chestnut type soil in China. Bioresour Technol 99:6702–6707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheng Z, Park E, Glick BR (2007) 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from Pseudomonas putida UW4 facilitates the growth of canola in the presence of salt. Can J Microbiol 53:912–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chincholkar SB, Chaudhari BL, Rane MR (2007) Microbial siderophores: state of art. In: Chincholkar SB, Varma A (eds) Microbial siderophores. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 233–242Google Scholar
  25. Chung H, Park M, Madhaiyan M, Seshadri S, Song J, Cho H, Sa T (2005) Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the rhizosphere of crop plants of Korea. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1970–1974Google Scholar
  26. Cocking EC (2003) Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Plant Soil 252:169–175Google Scholar
  27. Compant S, Duffy B, Nowak J, Clément C, Barka EA (2005) Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4951–4959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Crowley DE (2006) Microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. In: Barton LL, Abadía J (eds) Iron nutrition in plants and rhizospheric microorganisms. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 169–198Google Scholar
  29. Darrah PR (1993) The rhizosphere and plant nutrition: quantitative approach. Plant Soil 156:1–20Google Scholar
  30. de Salamone IEG, Hynes RK, Nelson LM (2001) Cytokinin production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and selected mutants. Can J Microbiol 47:404–411Google Scholar
  31. Dean DR, Jacobson MR (1992) Biochemical genetics and nitrogenase. In: Stacey G, Burris RH, Evans HJ (eds) Biological nitrogen fixation. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 763–834Google Scholar
  32. Dobbelaere S, Vanderleyden J, Okon Y (2003) Plant growth-promoting effects of diazotrophs in the rhizosphere. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:107–149Google Scholar
  33. Farwell AJ, Veselya S, Neroa V, Rodriguez H, McCormack K, Shah S, Dixona DG, Glick BR (2007) Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site. Environ Pollut 147:540–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fernandez LA, Zalba P, Gomez MA, Sagardoy MA (2007) Phosphate-solubilization activity of bacterial strains in soil and their effect on soybean growth under green house conditions. Biol Fertil Soils 43:803–805Google Scholar
  35. Fernando WGD, Nakkeeran S, Yilan Z (2006) Biosynthesis of antibiotics by PGPR and its relation in biocontrol of plant diseases. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 67–109Google Scholar
  36. Franche C, Lindström K, Elmerich C (2009) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with leguminous and non-leguminous plants. Plant Soil 321:35–59Google Scholar
  37. Frankenberger WT, Arshad M (1995) Phytohormones in soils: microbial production and function. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Freitas ADS, Vieira CL, Santos CERS, Stamford NP, Lyra MCCP (2007) Caracterização de rizóbios isolados de Jacatupé cultivado em solo salino no Estado de Pernanbuco, Brasil. Bragantia 66:497–504Google Scholar
  39. Fuentes-Ramírez LE, Caballero-Mellado J (2006) Bacterial biofertilizers. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 143–172Google Scholar
  40. Fukaki H, Okushima Y, Tasaka M (2007) Auxin-mediated lateral root formation in higher plants. Int Rev Cytol 256:111–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–117Google Scholar
  42. Glick BR, Bashan Y (1997) Genetic manipulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance biocontrol of fungal phytopathogens. Biotechnol Adv 15:353–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J, Duan J (2007a) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:329–339Google Scholar
  45. Glick BR, Todorovic B, Czarny J, Cheng Z, Duan J, McConkey B (2007b) Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:227–242Google Scholar
  46. Goldstein AH, Krishnaraj PU (2007) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms vs. phosphate mobilizing microorganisms: what separates a phenotype from a trait? In: Velázquez E, Rodríguez-Barrueco C (eds) First international meeting on microbial phosphate solubilization. Springer, Netherlands, pp 203–213Google Scholar
  47. Gray EJ, Smith DL (2005) Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biol Biochem 37:395–412Google Scholar
  48. Gutiérrez-Mañero FJ, Ramos-Solano B, Probanza A, Mehouachi J, Tadeo FR, Talon M (2001) The plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiol Plant 111:206–211Google Scholar
  49. Gyaneshwar P, Parekh LJ, Archana G, Poole PS, Collins MD, Hutson RA, Kumar GN (1999) Involvement of a phosphate-starvation inducible glucose dehydrogenase in soil phosphate solubilization by Enterobacter asburiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 171:223–229Google Scholar
  50. Haas D, Blumer C, Keel C (2000) Biocontrol ability of fluorescent pseudomonads genetically dissected: importance of positive feedback regulation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11:290–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hallman J, Quadt-Hallman A, Mahafee WF, Kloepper JW (1997) Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can J Microbiol 43:895–914Google Scholar
  52. Hariprasad P, Niranjana SR (2009) Isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria to improve plant health of tomato. Plant Soil 316:13–24Google Scholar
  53. Hasky-Günter K, Hoffman-Hergarten S, Sikora RA (1998) Resistance against the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida systemically induced by the rhizobacteria Agrobacterium radiobacter (G12) and Bacillus sphaericus (B43), Furuiam. Fundam Appl Nematol 5:1164–5571Google Scholar
  54. Hassanein WA, Awny NM, El-Mougith AA, Salah El-Dien SH (2009) The antagonistic activities of some metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sha8. J Appl Sci Res 5:404–414Google Scholar
  55. Hiltner L (1904) Uber neuere Erfahrungen und Probleme auf dem Gebiet der Bodenbakteriologie und unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Grundungung und Brache. Arb Dtsch Landwirtsch Ges 98:59–78Google Scholar
  56. Höflich G, Wiehe W, Kühn G (1994) Plant growth stimulation by inoculation with symbiotic and associative rhizosphere microorganisms. Experientia 50:897–905Google Scholar
  57. Holguin G, Glick BR (2001) Expression of the ACC deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UW4 in Azospirillum brasilense. Microb Ecol 41:281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Holguin G, Glick BR (2003) Transformation of Azospirillum brasilense Cd with an ACC deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UW4 fused to the Tetr gene promoter improves its fitness and plant growth promoting ability. Microb Ecol 46:122–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Howie WJ, Suslow TV (1991) Role of antibiotic biosynthesis in the inhibition of Pythium ultimum in the cotton spermosphere and rhizosphere by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4:393–399Google Scholar
  60. Keel C, Voisard C, Berling CH, Kahr G, Defag G (1989) Iron sufficiency, a prerequisite for the suppression of tobacco black root rot by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 under gnotobiotic condition. Phytopathology 79:584–589Google Scholar
  61. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA (2006) Role of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in sustainable agriculture – a review. Agron Sustain Dev 27:28–43Google Scholar
  62. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA, Ahemad M, Oves M (2009) Functional diversity among plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In: Khan MS, Zaidi A, Musarrat J (eds) Microbial strategies for crop improvement. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 105–132Google Scholar
  63. Kidd P, Barceló J, Bernal MP, Navari-Izzo F, Poschenrieder C, Shilev S, Clemente R, Monteroso C (2009) Trace element behavior at the root-soil interface: implications in phytoremediation. J Environ Exp Bot 67:243–259Google Scholar
  64. Kim J, Rees DC (1994) Nitrogenase and biological nitrogen fixation. Biochemistry 33:389–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kim KY, Jordan D, McDonald GA (1998) Enterobacter agglomerans a phosphate solubilizing bacteria and microbial activity in soil: effect of carbon source. Soil Biol Biochem 30:995–1003Google Scholar
  66. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1978) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on plant pathogenic bacteria, Angers, 27 Aug–2 Sept 1978, pp 879–882Google Scholar
  67. Kuhad RC, Kothamasi DM, Tripathi KK, Singh A (2004) Diversity and functions of soils microflora in development of plants. In: Varma A, Abbot L, Werner D, Hampp R (eds) Plant surface microbiology. Springer, New York, pp 71–98Google Scholar
  68. Kumar T, Wahla V, Pandey P, Dubey RC, Maheshwari DK (2009) Rhizosphere competent Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the management of Heterodera cajani on sesame. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25:277–285Google Scholar
  69. Lodewyckx C, Vangronsveld J, Porteous F, Moore ERB, Taghavi S, Mezgeay M, van der Lelie D (2002) Endophytic bacteria and their potential applications. Crit Rev Plant Sci 21:583–606Google Scholar
  70. Maheshwari DK (2011) Plant growth and health promoting bacteria, Microbiology monographs. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  71. Masalha J, Kosegarten H, Elmaci Ö, Mengal K (2000) The central role of microbial activity for iron acquisition in maize and sunflower. Biol Fertil Soils 30:433–439Google Scholar
  72. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McKenzie RH, Roberts TL (1990) Soil and fertilizers phosphorus update. In: Proceedings of the Alberta soil science workshop, Edmonton, 20–22 Feb 1990, pp 84–104Google Scholar
  74. Meyer JM, Stintzi A (1998) Iron metabolism and siderophores in Pseudomonas and related species. In: Montie TC (ed) Biotechnology handbooks, vol 10, Pseudomonas. Plenum Publishing Co., New York, pp 201–243Google Scholar
  75. Mirza MS, Mehnaz S, Normand P, Prigent-Combaret C, Moënne-Loccoz Y, Bally R, Malik KA (2006) Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas strain promoting rice growth. Biol Fertil Soils 43:163–170Google Scholar
  76. Mittal V, Singh O, Nayyar H, Kaur J, Tewari R (2008) Stimulatory effect of phosphate-solubilizing fungal strains (Aspergillus awamori and Penicillium citrinum) on the yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. GPF2). Soil Biol Biochem 40:718–727Google Scholar
  77. Mukerji KG, Manoharachary C, Singh J (2006) Microbial activity in the rhizosphere, vol 7, Soil biology. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  78. Mullen MD (2005) Phosphorus in soils: biological interactions. In: Hillel D, Rosenzweig C, Powlson D, Scow K, Singer M, Sparks D (eds) Encyclopedia of soils in the environment, vol 3, Academic Press. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 210–215Google Scholar
  79. Neilands JB (1986) Siderophores in relation to plant growth and disease. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37:187–208Google Scholar
  80. Neilands JB (1995) Siderophores: structure and function of microbial iron transport compounds. J Biol Chem 270:26723–26726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nowak J, Shulaev V (2003) Priming for transplant stress resistance in vitro propagation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:107–124Google Scholar
  82. Okon Y, Labandera-Gonzalez CA (1994) Agronomic applications of Azospirillum: an evaluation of 20 years worldwide field inoculation. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1591–1601Google Scholar
  83. Oliveira CA, Alves VMC, Marriel IE, Gomes EA, Scotti MR, Carneiro NP, Guimarães CT, Schaffert RE, Sá NMH (2009) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of maize cultivated in an oxisol of the Brazilian Cerrado Biome. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1782–1787Google Scholar
  84. Ona O, Van Impe J, Prinsen E, Vanderleyden J (2005) Growth and indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 is environmentally controlled. FEMS Microbiol Lett 246:125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Oostendorp M, Sikora RA (1989) Seed treatment with antagonistic rhizobacteria for the suppression of Heterodera schachtii early root infection of sugar beet. Rev Nématol 12:77–83Google Scholar
  86. Oostendorp M, Sikora RA (1990) In-vitro interrelationships between rhizosphere bacteria and Heterodera schachtii. Rev Nématol 13:269–274Google Scholar
  87. Pate JS, Verboom WH, Galloway PD (2001) Co-occurrence of Proteaceae, laterite and related oligotrophic soils: coincidental associations or causative inter-relationships? Aust J Bot 49:529–560Google Scholar
  88. Patten CL, Glick BR (1996) Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Can J Microbiol 42:207–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Peoples M, Giller D, Herridge DF, Vessey K (2002) Limitations to biological nitrogen fixation as a renewable source of nitrogen for agriculture. In: Finan T, O’Brian M, Layzell D, Vessey K, Newton W (eds) Nitrogen fixation: global perspectives. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 356–360Google Scholar
  90. Pérez-Miranda S, Cabirol N, George-Téllez R, Zamudio-Rivera LS, Fernández FJ (2007) O-CAS, a fast and universal method for siderophore detection. J Microbiol Methods 70:127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Perrig D, Boiero ML, Masciarelli OA, Penna C, Ruiz OA, Cassán FD, Luna MV (2007) Plant-growth-promoting compounds produced by two agronomically important strains of Azospirillum brasilense, and implications for inoculant formulation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75:1143–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Prinsen E, Chauvaux N, Schmidt J, John M, Wieneke U, De Greef J, Schell J, Van Onckelen H (1991) Stimulation of indole-3-acetic acid production in Rhizobium by flavonoids. FEBS Lett 282:53–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Raaijmakers JM, Vlami M, de Souza JT (2002) Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:537–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Raghothama KG (1999) Phosphate acquisition. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:665–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Richardson AE (1994) Soil microorganisms and phosphorus availability. In: Pankhurst CE, Doube BM, Gupta VVSR (eds) Soil biota: management in sustainable farming systems. CSIRO, Victoria, pp 50–62Google Scholar
  96. Richardson AE, Barea JM, McNeill AM, Prigent-Combaret C (2009) Acquisition of phosphorus and nitrogen in the rhizosphere and plant growth promotion by microorganisms. Plant Soil 321:305–339Google Scholar
  97. Riefler M, Novak O, Strnad M, Schmülling T (2006) Arabidopsis cytokinin receptor mutants reveal functions in shoot growth, leaf senescence, seed size, germination, root development, and cytokinin metabolism. Plant Cell 18:40–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rodríguez H, Fraga R, González T, Bashan Y (2006) Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Soil 287:15–21Google Scholar
  99. Schalk IJ, Hennard C, Durgave L, Poole K, Abdallah MH, Pattus F (2001) Iron-free pyoverdin binds to its outer membrane receptor FpvA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a new mechanism for membrane iron transport. Mol Microbiol 39:351–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schippers B, Bakker AW, Bakker PAHM, Van Peer R (1990) Beneficial and deleterious effects of HCN-producing pseudomonads on rhizosphere interactions. Plant Soil 129:75–83Google Scholar
  101. Schwyn B, Neilands JB (1987) Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal Biochem 160:46–56Google Scholar
  102. Sharma A, Johri BN (2003) Combat of iron-deprivation through a plant growth promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas strain GRP3A in mung bean. Microbiol Res 158:77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Shilev S, Sancho ED, Benlloch M (2010) Rhizospheric bacteria alleviate salt-produced stress in sunflower. J Environ Manag 95:S37–S41Google Scholar
  104. Shilev S, Naydenov M, Sancho Prieto M, Sancho ED, Vassilev N (2012) PGPR as inoculants in management of lands contaminated with trace elements. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: stress management. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 259–277Google Scholar
  105. Siddiqui ZA (2006) PGPR: prospective biocontrol agents of plant pathogens. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biocontrol. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 112–142Google Scholar
  106. Silverman FP, Assiamah AA, Bush DS (1998) Membrane transport and cytokinin action in root hairs of Medicago sativa. Planta 205:23–31Google Scholar
  107. Somers E, Vanderleyden J, Srinivasan M (2004) Rhizosphere bacterial signalling: a love parade beneath our feet. Crit Rev Microbiol 30:205–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Swain MR, Naskar SK, Ray RC (2007) Indole-3-acetic acid production and effect on sprouting of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata L.) minisetts by Bacillus subtilis isolated from culturable cowdung microflora. Pol J Microbiol 56:103–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tilak KVBR, Ranganayaki N, Pal KK, De R, Saxena AK, Nautiyal CS, Mittal S, Tripathi AK, Johri BN (2005) Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Curr Sci India 89:136–150Google Scholar
  110. Turner BL, Papházy MJ, Haygarth PM, McKelvie ID (2002) Inositol phosphates in the environment. Philos Trans R Soc B 357:449–469Google Scholar
  111. Unkovich M, Baldock J (2008) Measurement of asymbiotic N2 fixation in Australian agriculture. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2915–2921Google Scholar
  112. Van de Broek A, Lambrecht M, Eggermont K, Vanderleyden J (1999) Auxins upregulate expression of the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase gene in Azospirillum brasilense. J Bacteriol 181:1338–1342Google Scholar
  113. Vansuyt G, Robin A, Briat JF, Curie C, Lemanceau P (2007) Iron acquisition from Fe-pyoverdine by Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 20:441–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Vassilev N, Vassileva M, Nikolaeva I (2006) Simultaneous P-solubilizing and biocontrol activity of microorganisms: potentials and future trends. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 71:137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586Google Scholar
  116. Wang C, Knill E, Glick BR, Défago G (2000) Effect of transferring 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase genes into Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and its gacA derivative CHA96 on their growth-promoting and disease-suppressive capacities. Can J Microbiol 46:898–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Whipps JM (2001) Microbial interactions and biocontrol in the rhizosphere. J Exp Bot 52:487–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Winkelmann G (2002) Microbial siderophores-mediated transport. Biochem Soc Trans 30:691–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Yaxley JR, Ross JJ, Sherriff LJ, Reid JB (2001) Gibberellin biosynthesis mutations and root development in pea. Plant Physiol 125:627–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Zahir AA, Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (2004) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: applications and perspectives in agriculture. Adv Agron 81:97–168Google Scholar
  121. Zahran HH (2001) Rhizobia from wild legumes: diversity, taxonomy, ecology, nitrogen fixation and biotechnology. J Biotechnol 91:143–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Zaidi A, Khan MS (2006) Co-inoculation effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Glomus fasciculatum on green gram- Bradyrhizobium symbiosis. Turk J Agric 30:223–230Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Environmental BiotechnologiesAgricultural University PlovdivPlovdivBulgaria

Personalised recommendations