Plant–Microbe Interactions for Sustainable Agriculture: Fundamentals and Recent Advances

  • Sajid Mahmood Nadeem
  • Muhammad Naveed
  • Zahir A. Zahir
  • Hafiz Naeem Asghar


Coordinated interactions between plants and microbes have supreme importance for improving plant growth as well as maintaining proper soil conditions. Rhizosphere interactions that are based on complex exchange are more complicated than those occurring above soil surface or non-rhizosphere soil. Among diverse microbial population, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) gain special attention owing to their multifarious functional characters like effective root colonization, hormone production, solubilization of nutrients, and production of certain enzymes that are beneficial for sustainable agriculture. An understanding about their ecology, growth-promoting traits, mechanisms of action, and their application for plant growth stimulation has key importance for maximum utilization of this naturally occurring population. The present review highlights the importance of PGPR for enhancing crop production. The mechanisms of plant growth promotions as well as effectiveness of PGPR under different environments have been discussed. The effectiveness of multistrain inocula over single strain has been explained with examples. Also, the limitations related to the use of bacterial inoculants under natural field conditions and some important basics related to their formulation and commercialization have been discussed.


Growth Promotion Root Colonization Plant Growth Promotion Indole Acetic Acid Phosphate Solubilization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajid Mahmood Nadeem
    • 1
  • Muhammad Naveed
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zahir A. Zahir
    • 2
  • Hafiz Naeem Asghar
    • 2
  1. 1.College of AgricultureUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Bioresources UnitAIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbHTullnAustria

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