Secondary Metabolites of Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Their Role in Plant Growth Promotion

  • Samina Mehnaz


Most of the fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from plant rhizosphere promote plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. These bacteria produce phytohormones and promote plant growth directly. In addition, they produce secondary metabolites which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi and promote plant growth indirectly. Among fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a subspecies of Pseudomonas chlororaphis, is known to produce antibiotics with antifungal activity. Strains of P. aurantiaca have been isolated from sugarcane, soya bean, canola, soil, and municipal sludge in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, and Asia. These strains are reported to produce IAA, HCN, siderophores, phenazines, cyclic lipopeptides, pyoverdin, and quorum-sensing signaling compounds. Most of these strains have shown antifungal activity against several pathogenic strains of Fusarium, Pythium, Colletotrichum, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium sp. One of these P. aurantiaca strain SR1 has been proven as a plant growth promoter for several crops. In this manuscript, a review of all reported strains of P. aurantiaca and their growth-promoting abilities is presented. The main focus is on secondary metabolites and mechanism used by these metabolites to promote plant growth, with a suggestion that this bacteria can be used as a biofertilizer and a biocontrol agent in the near future.


High Performance Liquid Chromatography Secondary Metabolite Antifungal Activity Quorum Sense Plant Growth Promotion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Author is grateful to Dr. Rahman Shah Zaib Saleem (Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering (SSE), Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore, Pakistan) for the drawing of structures of secondary metabolites presented in Fig. 14.2.


  1. Andres JA, Rovira M, Guinazo LB, Pastor NA, Rosas SB (2011) Role of Pseudomonas aurantiaca in crop improvement. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: plant growth responses. Springer, Berlin, pp 107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audenaert K, Pattery T, Cornelis P, Hofte M (2001) Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pathogen resistance in plants. In: Chablain P, Cornelis P (eds) Pseudomonas 2001 abstracts book. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, p 36Google Scholar
  3. Bakker PAHM, Lamers JG, Bakker AW, Marugg JD, Weisbeek PJ (1986) The role of siderophores in potato tuber yield increase by Pseudomonas putida in a short rotation of potato. Neth J Plant Pathol 92:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltz RH (2009) Daptomycin: mechanisms of action and resistance, and biosynthetic engineering. Curr Opin Chem Biol 13:144–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bender CL, Alarcon-Chaidez F, Gross DC (1999) Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:266–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Buysens S, Heungens K, Poppe J, Hofte M (1996) Involvement of pyochelin and pyoverdin in suppression of Pythium induced damping off of tomato by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NKS2. Appl Environ Microbiol 62(3):865–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlier E, Rovera M, Rossi Jaume AD, Rosas SB (2008) Improvement of growth, under field conditions, of wheat inoculated with Pseudomonas aurantiaca SR1. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:2653–2658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chin-a-Woeng TFC, de Priester W, van der Bij AJ, Lugtenberg BJJ (1997) Description of the colonization of a gnotobiotic tomato rhizosphere by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strain WCS365, using scanning electron microscopy. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chin-A-Woeng TFC, Bloemberg GV, Mulders IHM, Dekkers LC, Lugtenberg BJJ (2000) Root colonization by phenazine-1-carboxamide producing bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 is essential for biocontrol of tomato foot and root rot. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 13:1340–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chin-A-Woeng TFC, Bloemberg GV, Lugtenberg BJJ (2003) Phenazines and their role in biocontrol by Pseudomonas bacteria. New Phytol 157:503–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cronin D, Moenne-Locoz Y, Fenion A, Dunne C, Dowling DN, O’Gara F (1997) Role of 2,4 di-acetyl phloroglucinol in the interactions of biocontrol Pseudomonad strains F113 with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1357–1361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui X, Harling R, Mutch P, Darling D (2005) Identification of N-3-hydroxyoctanoyl-homoserine lactone production in Pseudomonas fluorescens 5064, pathogenic to broccoli, and controlling biosurfactant production by quorum sensing. Eur J Plant Pathol 111:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Weger LA, van Boxtel R, der Burg B, Gruters RA, Geels FP, Schippers B, Lugtenberg B (1986) Siderophores and outer membrane proteins of antagonistic, plant growth stimulating, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. J Bacteriol 165:585–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dubern JF, Lugtenberg BJ, Bloemberg GV (2006) The ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system regulates biofilm formation of Pseudomonas putida PCL1445 by controlling biosynthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides putisolvins I and II. J Bacteriol 188:2898–2906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dwivedi D, Johri BN (2003) Antifungals from fluorescent pseudomonads: biosynthesis and regulation. Curr Sci 12:1693–1703Google Scholar
  16. Feklistova IN, Maksimova NP (2008) Obtaining Pseudomonas aurantiaca strains capable of overproduction of phenazine antibiotics. Microbiology 77:176–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernando WGD, Lindermann R (1994) Inhibition of Phytophthora vignae and root rot of cowpea by soil bacteria. Biol Agric Hortic 12:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fernando WGD, Watson AK, Paulitz TC (1996) The role of Pseudomonas spp. and competition for carbon, nitrogen and iron in the enhancement of appressorium formation by Colletotrichum coccodes on velvetleaf. Eur J Plant Pathol 102:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fernando WGD, Ramarathnam R, Krishnamoorthy AS, Savchuk SC (2005) Identification and use of potential bacterial organic antifungal volatiles in biocontrol. Soil Biol Biochem 37:955–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gaffney TD, Lam ST, Ligon J, Gates K, Frazelle A, Di Maio J, Hill S, Goodwin S, Torkewitz N, Allshouse AM, Kempf HJ, Becker JO (1994) Global regulation of expression of antifungal factors by a Pseudomonas fluorescens biological control strain. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 7:455–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J, Duan J (2007) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gross H, Loper JE (2009) Genomics of secondary metabolite production by Pseudomonas spp. Nat Prod Rep 26:1408–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hill DS, Stein JI, Torkewitz NR, Morse AM, Howell CR, Pachlatko JP, Becker JO, Ligon JM (1994) Cloning of genes involved in the synthesis of pyrrolnitrin from Pseudomonas fluorescens and role of pyrrolnitrin synthesis in biological control of plant disease. Appl Environ Microbiol 60(1):78–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hunt MD, Neuenschwander UH, Delaney TP, Weymann KB, Friedrich LB, Lawton KA, Steiner HY, Ryals JA (1996) Recent advances in systemic acquired resistance – a review. Gene 7:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klee HJ, Hayford MB, Kretzmer KA, Barry GF, Kishore GM (1991) Control of ethylene synthesis by expression of a bacterial enzyme in transgenic tomato plants. Plant Cell 3:1187–1193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Leeman M, van Pelt JA, Denouden FM, Heinsbroek M, Bakker PAHM, Schippers B (1995) Induction of systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of radish by lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Phytopathology 85:1021–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leisinger T, Margrafft R (1979) Secondary metabolites of the fluorescent pseudomonads. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 4:422–442Google Scholar
  28. Liu H, He Y, Jiang H, Peng H, Huang X, Zhang X, Thomashow LS, Xu Y (2007) Characterization of a phenazine producing strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis GP72 with broad spectrum antifungal activity from green pepper rhizosphere. Curr Microbiol 54:302–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loper JE, Henkels MD, Shaffer BT, Valeriote FA, Gross H (2008) Isolation and identification of rhizoxin analogs from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 by using a genomic mining strategy. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3085–3093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahajan MS, Tan MW, Rahme LG, Ausubel FM (1999) Molecular mechanism of bacterial virulence elucidated using a Pseudomonas aeruginosaCaenorhabditis elegans pathogenesis model. Cell 96:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mandryk MN, Kolomiets E, Dey ES (2007) Characterization of antimicrobial compounds produced by Pseudomonas aurantiaca S-1. Pol J Microbiol 56:245–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Maurhofer M, Hase C, Meuwly P, Metraux J-P, Defago G (1994) Induction of systemic resistance of tobacco to tobacco necrosis virus by the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHAO: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology 84:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mehnaz S, Baig DN, Jamil F, Weselowski B, Lazarovits G (2009) Characterization of a phenazine and hexanoyl homoserine lactone producing Pseudomonas aurantiaca strain PB-St2, isolated from sugarcane stem. J Microbiol Biotechnol 19(12):1688–1694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mehnaz S, Baig DN, Lazarovits G (2010) Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria associated with sugarcane growing in Pakistan. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20(12):1614–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mehnaz S, Saleem RSZ, Yameen B, Pianet I, Schnakenburg G, Pietraszkiewicz H, Valeriote F, Josten M, Sahl H-G, Franzblau S, Gross H (2013) Lahorenoic acids A-C, the ortho-dialkyl-substituted aromatic acids from the bio-control strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2. J Nat Prod 76(2):135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mortishire-Smith RJ, Nutkins JC, Packman LC, Brodey CL, Rainey PB, Johnstone K, Williams DH (1991) Determination of the structure of an extracellular peptide produced by the mushroom saprotroph Pseudomonas reactans. Tetrahedron 47:3645–3654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nowak-Thompson B, Hammer PE, Hill DS, Stafford J, Torkewitz N, Gaffney TD, Lam ST, Molnar I, Ligon JM (2003) 2,5-Dialkylresorcinol biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aurantiaca: novel head-to-head condensation of two fatty acid-derived precursors. J Bacteriol 185:860–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nybroe O, Sørensen J (2004) Production of cyclic lipopeptides by fluorescent pseudomonads. In: Ramos JL (ed) Pseudomonas, biosynthesis of macromolecules and molecular metabolism. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 147–172Google Scholar
  39. O’Sullivan DJ, O’Gara F (1992) Traits of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. involved in suppression of plant root pathogens. Microbiol Rev 56:662–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Omel’yanets TG, Mel’nik GP (1987) Toxicological evaluation of the microbial preparation mycolytin. Zdravookhr Turkmenistana 6:8Google Scholar
  41. Park GK, Lim J-H, Kim SD, Shim SH (2012) Elucidation of antifungal metabolites produced by Pseudomonas aurantiaca IB5-10 with broad spectrum antifungal activity. J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:326–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Patten CL, Glick BR (2002) The role of Pseudomonas putida indole acetic acid in the development of host plant root system. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3795–3801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peix A, Valverde A, Rivas R, Igual JM, Ramirez-Bahena MH, Mateos PF, Santa-Regina I, Rodriguez-Barrueco C, Marinez-Molina E, Velazquez E (2007) Reclassification of Pseudomonas aurantiaca as a synonym of Pseudomonas chlororaphis and proposal of three subspecies, P. chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis subsp. nov., P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens subsp.nov., comb. nov., and P. chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca subsp. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:1286–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raaijmakers JM, Ulami M, de Souza JT (2002) Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 81:537–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I, de Kock MJ (2006) Cyclic lipopeptide production by plant associated Pseudomonas spp.: diversity, activity, biosynthesis and regulation. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:699–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I, Nybroe O, Ongena M (2010) Natural functions of lipopeptides from Bacillus and Pseudomonas: more than surfactants and antibiotics. FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:1037–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rodriguez H, Fraga R, Gonzalez T, Bashan Y (2006) Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Soil 287:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rokni-Zadeh H, Li W, Sanchez-Rodriguez A, Sinnaeve D, Rozenski J, Martins JC, De Mot R (2012) Genetic and functional characterization of cyclic lipopeptide white-line-inducing principle (WLIP) production by rice rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas putida RW10S2. Appl Environ Microbiol 78(14):4826–4834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosas SB, Altamirano F, Schroder E, Correa N (2001) In vitro biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas aurantiaca. Phyton-Int J Exp Bot 67:203–209Google Scholar
  50. Rosas SB, Rovera M, Andrés JA, Pastor NA, Guiñazú LB, Carlier E, Avanzini G, Correa NS (2005) Characterization of Pseudomonas aurantiaca as biocontrol and PGPR agent, endophytic properties. In: Sorvari S, Toldi O (eds) Plant microbe interactions: endophytes and biocontrol agents. EBA, Saariselka, BioBien Innovations, Lapland, Finland, pp 91–99Google Scholar
  51. Rosas SB, Avanzini G, Carlier E, Pasluosta C, Pastor N, Rovera M (2009) Root colonization and growth promotion of wheat and maize by Pseudomonas aurantiaca SR1. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1802–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rovera M, Andres J, Carlier E, Pasluosta C, Rosas S (2008) Pseudomonas aurantiaca: plant growth promoting traits, secondary metabolites and inoculation response. In: Ahmad I, Pichtel J, Hayat S (eds) Plant-bacteria interactions: strategies and techniques to promote plant growth. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rudrappa T, Baiss HP (2008) Rhizospheric pseudomonads: friends or foes? Plant Signal Behav 3:1132–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saini HS, Barragán-Huerta BE, Lebrón-Paler A, Pemberton JE, Vázquez RR, Burns AM, Marron MT, Seliga CJ, Gunatilaka AA, Maier RM (2008) Efficient purification of the biosurfactant viscosin from Pseudomonas libanensis strain M9-3 and its physicochemical and biological properties. J Nat Prod 71:1011–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Saleem M, Arshad M, Hussain S, Bhatti AS (2007) Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 34:635–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schippers B, Bakker AW, Bakker PAHM (1987) Interactions of deleterious and beneficial microorganisms and the effect on cropping practices. Annu Rev Phytopathol 25:339–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Seveno NA, Morgan JA, Wellington EM (2001) Growth of Pseudomonas aureofaciens PGS12 and the dynamics of HHL and phenazine production in liquid culture, on nutrient agar and on plant roots. Microb Ecol 14:314–324Google Scholar
  58. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid A (2006) Performance of Pseudomonas spp. containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2971–2975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Suzuki S, He Y, Oyaizu H (2003) Indole-3-acetic acid production in Pseudomonas fluorescens HP72 and its association with suppression of creeping bentgrass brown patch. Curr Microbiol 47:138–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thrane C, Olsson S, Nielson TH, Sorensen J (1999) Vital fluorescent strains for detection of stress in Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani challenged with viscosinamide from Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 30:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tran H, Ficke A, Asiimwe T, Hofte M, Raaijmakers JM (2007) Role of the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide A in biological control of Phytophthora infestans and in colonization of tomato plants by Pseudomonas fluorescens. New Phytol 175:731–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. van Loon LC (1997) Induced resistance in plants and the role of pathogenesis-related proteins. Eur J Plant Pathol 103:753–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ (1998) Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Phytopathol 3l6:453–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. van Wees SCM, Pieterse CMJ, Trijssenaar A, Van ’t Westende YA, Hartog F, van Loon LC (1997) Differential induction of systemic resistance in Arabidopsis by biocontrol bacteria. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:716–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wang Y, Brown HN, Crowley DE, Szaniszlo PJ (1993) Evidence for direct utilization of a siderophore, ferrioxamine B, in axenically grown cucumber. Plant Cell Environ 16:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesForman Christian College UniversityLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations