Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics of Chronic Kidney Disease Comorbidities and Kidney Transplantation

  • Clarice Chemello
  • Margarita Aguilera
  • Marisa Cañadas Garre
  • Miguel A. Calleja Hernández


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide major public health problem associated with increased risk of mortality and rate of hospitalization and decreased life expectancy. Progression from early to late stages of CKD generally results in the onset of new symptoms and concomitant complications. Frequent complications and comorbidities of CKD include fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy (known as Chronic Kidney Disease-Bone Mineral Disorder – CKD-BMD), hypertension and hyperlipidemia, anemia, metabolic acidosis, and several other comorbidities involving malnutrition, pruritus, and uremic bleeding. CKD patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure. The management and prevention of these comorbidities, as well as the kidney transplant complications, are complex.

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have been applied to the management of CKD patients in both conservative and renal replacement treatments (dialysis and transplantation) trying to avoid the occurrence of drug-related problems and appearance of comorbidities. This chapter will discuss important findings in CKD pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies conducted to date and future research directions in this field. The focus will be on the CKD comorbidities (CKD-BMD and CVD) and calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine and tacrolimus) as immunosuppressive therapy. Although many studies are limited by small sample sizes and replication of the findings is needed, several candidate genes have been identified and are discussed here: CYP3A5, CYP3A4, ABCB1, CASR, VDR, GC, MTHFR, and RFC1. Thus, the future is promising for a personalized treatment of CKD, which will improve therapeutic outcomes, minimize side effects, and lead to a more cost-effective care.


Chronic Kidney Disease Glomerular Filtration Rate Parathyroid Gland Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Reduce Folate Carrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clarice Chemello
    • 1
    • 2
  • Margarita Aguilera
    • 2
  • Marisa Cañadas Garre
    • 2
  • Miguel A. Calleja Hernández
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center of Health SciencesFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianopolisBrazil
  2. 2.Pharmacogenetics Unit. Pharmacy ServiceUniversity Hospital Virgen de las NievesGranadaSpain

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