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Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine for Infectious Diseases

  • Nirmal Kumar Ganguly
  • Gautam Kumar Saha
Chapter

Abstract

Humans have been plagued by the scourge of invasion by pathogens leading to infectious diseases from the time in memoriam and are still the cause of morbidity and mortality among millions of individuals. Trying to understand the disease mechanisms and finding the remedial measures have been the quest of humankind. The susceptibility to disease of an individual in a given population is determined by ones genetic buildup. Response to treatment and the disease prognosis also depends upon individual’s genetic predisposition. The environmental stress induces mutations and is leading to the emergence of ever-increasing more dreaded infectious pathogens, and now we are in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance that has thrown up a challenge to find new treatment regimes. Discoveries in the science of high-throughput sequencing and array technologies have shown new hope and are bringing a revolution in human health. The information gained from sequencing of both human and pathogen genomes is a way forward in deciphering host-pathogen interactions. Deciphering the pathogen virulence factors, host susceptibility genes, and the molecular programs involved in the pathogenesis of disease has paved the way for discovery of new molecular targets for drugs, diagnostic markers, and vaccines. The genomic diversity in the human population leads to differences in host responses to drugs and vaccines and is the cause of poor response to treatment as well as adverse reactions. The study of pharmacogenomics of infectious diseases is still at an early stage of development, and many intricacies of the host-pathogen interaction are yet to be understood in full measure. However, progress has been made over the decades of research in some of the important infectious diseases revealing how the host genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters affect the bioavailability of the drugs which further determine the efficacy and toxicology of the drugs used for treatment. Further, the field of structural biology and chemistry has intertwined to give rise to medical structural genomics leading the way to the discovery of new drug targets against infectious diseases. This chapter explores how the advent of “omics” technologies is making a beginning in bringing about a change in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatments of the infectious diseases and hence paving way for personalized medicine.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Leukocyte Antigen Visceral Leishmaniasis Human Leukocyte Antigen Class Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Policy Centre for Biomedical Research, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (Department of Biotechnology Institute, Government of India)Office@National Institute of ImmunologyNew DelhiIndia

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