Advertisement

Deposition of Aluminum-Doped ZnO Films by ICP-Assisted Sputtering

  • Yoshinobu Matsuda
  • Akinori Hirashima
  • Kenji Mine
  • Takuhiro Hashimoto
  • Daichi Matsuoka
  • Masanori Shinohara
  • Tatsuo Okada
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 180)

Abstract

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) assisted DC sputter deposition was used for the deposition of Al-doped ZnO (AZO or ZnO:Al) thin films. With increasing ICP RF power, film properties including deposition rate, crystallinity, transparency, and resistivity were improved. To understand the plasma-surface interaction, several plasma diagnostics were performed. Heat fluxes to the substrate were measured by thermal probes, number densities of sputtered metallic atom species were measured by absorption spectroscopy using hollow cathode lamps (HCL) and light emitting diodes (LEDs), and neutral gas temperatures were measured by external cavity diode laser (ECDL) absorption spectroscopy. As a result, it was revealed that the high-density ICP heated the substrate through a high heat flux to the substrate, resulting in a high-quality film deposition without the need for intentional substrate heating. The heat flux to the substrate was predominantly contributed by the plasma charged species, not by the neutral Ar atoms which were also significantly heated in the ICP. The substrate position where the highest quality films were obtained was found to coincide with the position where the substrate heat flux took the maximum value.

Keywords

Energy Flux Inductively Couple Plasma Aluminum Dope Zinc Oxide Film Resistivity External Cavity Diode Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank T. Iwata, K. Komine, R. Kan, K. Uehara, R. Shindo, H. Kitagawa for their help in the experiment, and Prof. K. Sakai of Miyazaki University for performing the XRD and XPS analyses of AZO films. This research was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 20540485) in 2008–2010 and by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) in 2009–2011.

References

  1. 1.
    K.L. Chopra, S. Major, D.K. Pandya, Thin Solid Films 102, 1–46 (1982)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Minami, H. Sato, K. Ohashi, T. Tomofuji, S. Takata, J. Cryst. Growth 117, 370–374 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Ellmer, A. Klein, B. Rech, Transparent conductive zinc oxide: basics and applications in thin film solar cells (Springer, Berlin, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Lany, A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 045501 (2007) [4 pages]Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Ellmer, R. Mientus, Thin Solid Films 516, 5829–5835 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Szyszka, in Transparent conductive zinc oxide: basics and applications in thin film solar cells, ed. K. Ellmer, A. Klein, B. Rech (Springer, Berlin, 2008), pp. 187–233Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Iwata, T. Sakemi, A. Yamada, P. Fons, K. Awai, T. Yamamoto, M. Matsubara, H. Tampo, S. Niki, Thin Solid Films 445, 274–277 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Yamaya, Y. Yamaki, H. Nakanishi, S. Chichibu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 235–237 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.H. Han, S.J. Jung, J.J. Lee, J.H. Joo, Surf. Coat. Technol. 174–175, 235–239 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.J. Jung, Y.H. Han, B.M. Koo, J.J. Lee, J.H. Joo, Thin Solid Films 475, 275–278 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Iwai, Y. Matsuda, M. Shinohara, H. Fujiyama, in Abstracts and Full-Paper CD of the 18th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Kyoto, Japan, August 26–31 2007, 396 [4 pages]Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Matsuda, R. Kan, T. Iwata, K. Komine, K. Uehara, T. Shibasaki, M. Shinohara, in Proceedings CD of the 19th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC19), edited by A. von Keudell, J. Winter, M. Boke, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, Bochum, Germany, July 26–31 2009, P.2.2.20 [4 pages]Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Fay, A. Shah, in Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide: Basics and Applications in Thin Film Solar Cells, ed. K. Ellmer, A. Klein, B. Rech (Springer, Berlin, 2008), pp. 235–302Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Lorentz, in Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide: Basics and Applications in Thin Film Solar Cells, ed. K. Ellmer, A. Klein, B. Rech (Springer, Berlin, 2008), pp. 303–357Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Kuroyanagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 219–222 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.F. Aktaruzzaman, G.L. Sharma, L.K. Malhotra, Thin Solid Films 198, 67–74 (1991)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. Tang, D.C. Cameron, Thin Solid Films 238, 83–87 (1994)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Kemell, F. Dartigues, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, Thin Solid Films 434, 20–23 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Yamashita, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 721–727 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.M. Rossnagel, J. Hopwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3285–3287 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Hopwood, F. Qian, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 758–765 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Matsuda, Y. Koyama, K. Tashiro, H. Fujiyama, Thin Solid Films 435, 154–160 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Matsuda, M. Iwaya, Y. Koyama, M. Shinohara, H. Fujiyama, Thin Solid Films 457, 64–68 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Anders, Thin Solid Films 502, 22–28 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.L. Garner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011505 (2008) [3 pages]Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Iwai, Y. Matsuda, M. Shinohara, H. Fujiyama, in Abstracts and Full-Paper CD of the 18th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Kyoto, Japan, 26–31 August 2007 [4 pages]Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Matsuda, R. Kan, T. Iwata, K. Komine, K. Uehara, T. Shibasaki, M. Shinohara, in Proceeding CD of the 19th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC19), edited by A. von Keudell, J. Winter, M. Boke, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, Bochum, Germany, 26–31 July 2009, P. 2.2.20 [4 pages]Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Matsuda, R. Kan, T. Iwata, T. Kitagawa, R. Shindo, M. Shinohara, in Abstract Book of the 5th DAE-BRNS National Symposium on Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films and Nanostructured Materials (PLD-2009), IIT Madras, Chennai India, IRT11, 2–4 December 2009, p 27Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. Matsuda, R. Shindo, A. Hirashima, M. Shinohara, Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Sputter-Deposition of Al-doped ZnO Thin Films, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 63rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference and 7th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas, Paris France, 4–8 October 2010, Volume 55, Number 7, DTP.00036 [2 pages]Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y. Matsuda, A. Hirashima, K. Mine, T. Hashimoto, D. Matsuoka, M. Shinohara, T. Okada, Deposition of Transparent Conductive Aluminum-Doped ZnO Films Using RF Superposed DC Sputtering, Joint IIT Madras-Japan Symposium on ZnO nano-crystals and related materials, IIT-Madras Madras India, 8–10 January 2012 [1page]Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Dsa, K. Adhikary, S. Ray: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1501–1506 (2008)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Kersten, G.M.W. Kroesen, R. Hippler, Thin Solid Films 332, 282–289 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H. Kersten, D. Rohde, J. Berndt, H. Deutsch, R. Hippler, Thin Solid Films 377–378, 585–591 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Kersten, E. Stoffels, W.W. Stoffels, M. Otte, C. Csambal, H. Deutsch, R. Hippler, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3637–3645 (2000)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Kersten, H. Deutsch, H. Steffen, G.M.W. Kroesen, R. Hippler, Vacuum 63, 385–431 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.L. Thomann, N. Semmar, R. Dussrt, J. Mathias, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 033501 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Dussart, A.L. Thomann, Appl. Phys. 93, 131502 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. Wendt, K. Ellmer, K. Wiesemann, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2115–2122 (1997)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    L. Sirghi, G. Popa, Y. Hatanaka, Thin Solid Films 515, 1334–1339 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Matsuura, T. Jida, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 406–410 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Y. Matsuda, H. Kitagawa, K. Mine, M. Shinohara, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 63rd Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference and 7th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas, Paris France, 4–8 October 2010, Volume 55, Number 7, CTP.00010 (2010) [2 pages]Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Kitagawa, R. Kan, K. Mine, M. Shinohara, Y. Matsuda, in TENCON 2010 IEEE Region 10 Conference, Fukuoka Japan, 21–24 November 2010. T2-5.P2, pp. 2208–2212 (ISBN: 978-1-4244-6888-1Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. Kitagawa, K. Mine, M. Shinohara, Y. Matsuda, T. Okada, in Proceeding of the 20th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC20), Philadelphia USA, 24–29 July 2011, FDM56, ID537 [4 pages]Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vladimir N. Ochkin, Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasma (Wiley-VCH, Germany, 2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Kono, S. Takashima, M. Hori, T. Goto, J. Nucl. Mater. 76, 460–464 (2000)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. Castanos-Martinez, M. Moisan, Spectrochimica Acta Part B 65, 199–209 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Iwata, R. Shindo, M. Shinohara, Y. Matsuda, in Proceedings of 31st International Symposium on Dry Process, Busan Exhibition and Convention Center, Busan, Korea, 24–25 September 2009, 5-P11, pp. 151–152Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    T. Iwata, R. Sindo, K. Komine, M. Shinohara, Y. Matsuda, in Proceedings CD of the 27th Symposium on Plasma Processing, Kaiyo Kinen Kaikan, Yokohama, 1–3 February 2010, P1–15, pp. 157–158Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. Shindo, T. Iwata, A. Hirashima, M. Shinohara, Y. Matsuda, in TENCON 2010 IEEE Region 10 Conference, Fukuoka Japan, 21–24 November 2010, T2-7.3, pp. 1002–1006 (ISBN: 978-1-4244-6888-1)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. Cunge, D. Vempaire, M. Touzeau, N. Sadeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231503 (2007) [3 pages]Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. Shindo, A. Hirashima, M. Shinohara, Y. Matsuda, K. Sakai, T. Okada, in Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC20), Philadelphia USA, 24–29 July 2011, FDM55, ID536 [4 pages]Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    G.V. Samsonov, “The Oxide Hand Book” chapter II (IFI/PLENUM, New York, 1973)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. Tachibana, H. Harima, Y. Urano, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 15, 3169 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    K.B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60(12), 1098–1111 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    D. Wandt, M. Laschek, K. Przyklenk, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, Opt. Com. 130, 81–84 (1996)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    S. Eriksson, A.E.M. Lindberg, B. Stahlberg, Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 473–477 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    X.M. Zhang, A.Q. Liu, C. Lu, D.Y. Tang, J. Quant. Electron. 41(2), 187–197 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. Mroziewicz, Opto-Electron. Rev. 16–4, 347–366 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    L. Hildebrandt, R. Knispel, S. Stry, J.R. Sacher, F. Schael, Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2110–2118 (2003)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    R.F. Boivina, E.E. Scime, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4352–4361 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Bol’shakov, B.A. Cruden, Technical Physics 53(11), 1423–1432 (2008)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. Wolter, H.T. Do, H. Steffen, R. Hippler, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2390–2395 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    K. Sasaki, Y. Okumura, R. Asaoka, Int. J. Spectrosc. (2010). doi: 10.1155/2010/627571Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M.W. Kiehlbauch, D.B. Graves, Appl. Phys. 91, 3539–3546 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    D.B. Hash, D. Bose, M.V.V.S. Rao, B. A. Cruden, M. Meyyappan, S.P. Sharma, J. Appl. Phys. 90 (5), 2148–2157 (2001)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    N. Itagaki, K. Kuwahara, K. Nakahara, D. Yamashita, G. Uchida, K. Koga, M. Shiratani, Appl. Phys. Exp. 4, 011101 (2011) [2 pages]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshinobu Matsuda
    • 1
  • Akinori Hirashima
    • 2
  • Kenji Mine
    • 2
  • Takuhiro Hashimoto
    • 1
  • Daichi Matsuoka
    • 1
  • Masanori Shinohara
    • 1
  • Tatsuo Okada
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations