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Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Dopant, Defect, and Morphology Control on the Magnetic and Optical Properties of Transition Metal Doped ZnO Nanoparticles

  • O. D. Jayakumar
  • C. Persson
  • A. K. Tyagi
  • C. Sudakar
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 180)

Abstract

The control of size, shape, and physical properties by surface modifications are of immense interest in materials which are of technological importance. The ZnO-based wide bandgap semiconductor nanoparticles have gained significant interest in the research community due to its large exciton binding energy (60 meV). Further substantial renewed interest in ZnO-based compounds is due to the possible realization of p-type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transition metals. In this report we present interesting results on the ZnO nanoparticle system in which the control of dopants, morphology, and the surface modification can influence significantly the physical properties of the ZnO nanoparticles. First, we present the methods to control the morphology of the ZnO particle to obtain nanorods. As an example we show the effect of Li dopant on the morphology control of Co and Ni doped ZnO. The effect of morphology on the magnetic properties of these compounds is discussed further. We also demonstrate the effect of the n-type charge carriers on the magnetic and optical properties by doping aliovalent cations in Zn(Co)O. Following this we comment on the magnetic property manipulations by surfactant treatment of transition metal (TM) doped ZnO and defect stabilization in ZnO by Mg doping. The magnetic coupling is RKKY-like both with and without Li co-doping. Finally, we provide the significant implications of these results on the nanorods structures of room temperature ferromagnetic materials by first-principles modeling. These theoretical analyses demonstrate that Li co-doping has primarily two effects in bulk Zn1−x M x O (with M = Co or Ni). First, the Li-on-Zn acceptors increase the local magnetic moment by depopulating the M 3d minority spin-states. Second, Li-on-Zn prefer to be closer to the M atoms to compensate the M–O bonds and to locally depopulate the 3d states, and this will help in forming high aspect nanostructures. The observed room temperature ferromagnetism in Li co-doped Zn1−x M x O nanorods can therefore be explained by the better rod morphology in combination with locally ionizing the magnetic M atoms.

Keywords

Total Magnetic Moment Local Magnetic Moment Surfactant Treatment Nanorod Morphology Aliovalent Cation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

C. Sudakar would like to thank Prof. R. Naik, Prof. V. M. Naik, and Prof. G. Lawes and members of their group at Wayne State University (WSU). The author would like to acknowledge the Jane and Frank Warchol Foundation and the Institute for Manufacturing Research at WSU for support to TEM works carried out at WSU. C. Persson is supported by the Swedish Energy Agency, and the Swedish Research Council, and he acknowledges access to high-performance computing resources at the HPC2N and NSC centers through SNIC/SNAC and Matter network.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. D. Jayakumar
    • 1
  • C. Persson
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. K. Tyagi
    • 1
  • C. Sudakar
    • 4
  1. 1.Chemistry DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringRoyal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Deparment of PhysicsIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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