Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO-Based Phosphors and Related Phosphor Composites in Bulk, Thin Film and Nano Form

  • P. Thiyagarajan
  • M. Kottaisamy
  • M. S. Ramachandra Rao
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 180)


Phosphors are light emitting solids that play an important role in the lighting industry. The physics of doping suitable elements plays an equally important role in controlling the emission properties. The choice of host lattice is the key in controlling the charge transfer mechanism. Zn2SiO4 is a useful host material, and in this chapter we discuss on the effect of doping in various forms of this host material. Zn2SiO4:Mn powder (bulk) phosphors have been synthesized by sol–gel [1] and solid-state method, and thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition [2]. The optimization parameters like growth temperature, vacuum, and oxygen partial pressure (in case of thin films) that determine the luminescent efficiency of the phosphors will be highlighted. The defect and its related emission in ZnO encapsulated SiO2 nanocomposites [3] synthesized using urea assisted sol–gel techniques projecting toward the fabrication of UV-LED pumped white LED will be discussed in detail.


Charge Transfer Band Zinc Nitrate SiO2 Matrix Defect Emission SiO2 Nanocomposites 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    P. Thiyagarajan, M. Kottaisamy, M.S. Ramachandra Rao, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(4), H297–H303 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Thiyagarajan, M. Kottaisamy, M.S. Ramachandra Rao, Scripta Mater. 57, 433–436 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Thiyagarajan, M. Kottaisamy, M.S. Ramachandra Rao, Scripta Mater. 59, 722–725 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.A. Speer, P.H. Ribbe, in Reviews in Mineralogy, vol. 5, 2nd ed. by P.H. Ribbr (Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, 1982), p. 429Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. McKittrick, L.E. Shea, C.F. Bacalski, E.J. Bosze, Displays 19, 169 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.C. Kang, I.W. Lenggoro, S.B. Park, K. Okuyama, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1855 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L.E. Shea, J. McKittric, O.A. Lopez, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 3257 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Shionoya, W.M. Yen (eds.), Phosphor Handbook (Phosphor Research Society (Japan), CRC, Boca Raton, 1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.C. Swart, T.A. Trottier, J.S. Sebastian, S.L. Jones, P.H. Holloway, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4578 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Minami, T. Miyata, S. Tanaka, I. Fukuda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2, 30, L117 (1991)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. Kandarakis, D. Cavouras, P. Prassopoulos, E. Kanellopoulos, C.D. Nomicos, G.S. Panayiotakis, Appl. Phys. A 67, 521 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Miyata, T. Minami, S. Tanaka, I. Fukuda, Digest of Technical Papers 1991 SID International Symposium, p. 286 (1991)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Minami, Solid-State Electron. 47, 2237 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    T.S. Ahmad, M. Haase, H. Weller, Mater. Res. Bull. 35, 1869 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Su, D.T. Tilley, M.J. Sailor, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 3459 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Q.H. Li, S. Komarneni, R. Roy, J. Mater. Sci. 30, 2358 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.H. Cho, H.J. Chang, Ceram. Int. 29, 611 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Lin, D.U. Sanger, M. Mennig, K. Barner, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, B64, 73 (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y.C. Kang, S.B. Park, Mater. Res. Bull. 35, 1143 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Cich, K. Kim, H. Choi, S.T. Hwang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2116 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Xiong, J. Shi, J. Gu, L. Li, W. Huang, J. Gao, M. Ruan, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 731 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R.P. Sreekanth Chakradhar, B.M. Nagabhushana, G.T. Chandrappa, K.P. Ramesh, J.L. Rao, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 10250 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Hao, Y. Wan, Z. Zhang, J. Rare Earths, 21 (Suppl), 28 (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    V.B. Bhatkar, S.K. Omanwa, S.V. Moharil, Phys. Status Solidi A 191, 272 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Morimo, K. Matae, Mater. Res. Bull. 24, 175 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Lin, Q. Su, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 1 (1996)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. McLaughlin, H. Sakeck, P. Macquire, W. Graham, J. Molloy, T. Morrow, S. Lavery, J. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1865 (1993)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Kumar, J. Sankar, K.G. Cho, V. Craciun, R.K. Singh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(16), 2518 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    X.L. Wu, G.G. Siu, C.L. Fu, H.C. Ong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Shionoya, W.M. Yen (eds.), Phosphor Hand Book (CRC press, Boca Raton, 1999), p. 565Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Guo, J.X. Cheng, X.Y. Li, Y.J. Yan, S.H. Yang, C.L. Yang, J.N. Wangand, K. Wu, Mater. Sci. Eng. C-16, 123 (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Y.-Y. Peng, T.-E. HSieh, C.-H. Hsu, Nanotechnology 17, 174–180 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Z. Fu, B. Yang, L. Li, W. Dong, C. Jia, W. Wu, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 2867 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Kayanuma, H. Momiji, Phys. Rev. B 41, 10261 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Bouguerra, M. Samah, M.A. Belkhir, A. Chergui, L. Gerbous, G. Novet, D. Chateigner, R. Madelon, Chem. Phys. Lett. 425, 77 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    B.D. Yao, H.Z. Shi, H.J. Bi, L.D. Zhnag, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12, 6265 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S.R. Jain, K.C. Adiga, V.R. Paiverneker, Combust. Flame 40, 71 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D.R. Brezinski (ed.), An Infrared Spectroscopy Atlas for the Coatings Industry, vol. 1, 4th edn. (Federation of Society for Coating Technology, Philadelphia, 1991)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C.C. Lin, P. Shen, J. Non-Cryst, Solids 281, 171 (1994)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G.T. Chandrappa, S. Ghosh, K.C. Patil, J. Mater. Synth. Process. 7, 273 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Kondo, T. Itoh, T. Saito, Phys. Rev. B 57, 13235 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Morell, N. El Khiati, J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2019 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Blasse, B.C. Grabmaier (eds.), Luminescent Materials (Springer, Berlin, 1994)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. Kigperking, M.J. Sienko, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 2398 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. Barthou, J. Benoit, P. Benalloul, A. Morell, J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 524 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.L.N. Stevels, A.T. Vink, J. Lumin. 8, 443 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    C.R. Ronda, T. Amrein, J. Lumin. 69, 245 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    A.P. Wink, M.A. deBruin, S. Roke, P.S. Peijzel, A. Meijerink, J. Electrochem. Soc. 148, E313 (2001)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.H. Zhang, Z.Y. Xue, Q.P. Wang, J. Phys. D 35, 2837 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Z.X. Fu, C.X. Guo, B.X. Lin, G.H. Liao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 15, 457 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    W. Li, D.S. Mao, Z.H. Zheng et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 128–129, 346 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K.C. Mishra, K.H. Johnson, B.G. DeBoer, J.K. Berkowitz, J. Olsen, E.A. Dale, J. Lumin. 47, 197 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    L.E. Orgel, J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1004 (1955)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    S.R. Jain, K.C. Adigao, V.R. Pai Verneker, Combust. Flame 40, 1 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. Kottaisamy, M. Mohan Rao, D. Jeyakumar, J. Mater. Chem. 7, 345 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Thiyagarajan
    • 1
  • M. Kottaisamy
    • 2
  • M. S. Ramachandra Rao
    • 3
  1. 1.Crystal Growth CentreAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryThiagarajar College of EngineeringMaduraiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Physics, Materials Science Research CentreIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations