Zinc Oxide: The Versatile Material with an Assortment of Physical Properties

  • E. Senthil Kumar
  • Shubra Singh
  • M. S. Ramachandra Rao
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 180)


Zinc oxide has the potential to replace GaN as the next-generation white light emitting diode material. This wide bandgap semiconductor with an excitonic binding energy of ~60 meV has been researched extensively in the last decade due to its immense potentiality for blue/UV light emitting devices. ZnO lattice is amenable to doping with transition metal ions (TM) and 4f-elements. Such a doping activity in ZnO has been mainly aimed at the realization of n and p-type conductivity and room temperature diluted magnetic semiconducting behavior. Several doping studies have been attempted in order to get an insight into the changes in physical properties with the emphasis on fabricating of all ZnO pn junctions for white light/UV emission. The challenge is to obtain highly stable p-ZnO with doping. Our group has been working on doping studies in ZnO. Ni doping shows a dramatic decrease in resistivity in polycrystalline ZnO. Stable and low resistive p-type conduction in ZnO was not possible with monovalent ion (Li, Ag etc.) doping. Recent work indicated the possibility of inducing shallow holes into ZnO lattice using co-doping route. We used Li and Ni co-doping to realize a low resistive, p-type and magnetic ZnO. Aligned 1-dimensional ZnO nanowires can also be obtained using PLD and other methods. Our research group at IIT Madras has been working closely with Kyushu University and other partner universities in Japan to make research in ZnO a worthwhile attempt aimed at device applications. We will present, in this chapter, overall physical properties of ZnO with our important results related to the doping aspects in ZnO.


Room Temperature Ferromagnetism Pulse Laser Deposition Technique Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Material Double Exchange Mechanism Room Temperature Electrical Resistivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



S. Singh would like to acknowledge Dr. M. Kottaisamy from Materials Science Research Centre, IIT Madras for the useful discussion on synthesis techniques of nanostructures.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  • Shubra Singh
    • 2
  • M. S. Ramachandra Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, and Materials Science Research CentreIndian Institute of Technology (IIT) MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Crystal Growth CentreAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

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