XRF Study



The AlKα emission wavelength is affected by the state of coordination of Al atom. Based on this discovery, the coordination state of aluminum in metakaolinite, in spinel phase, and finally in mullite is determined.


Coordination Number Spinel Phase Wavelength Shift Alumina Spinel Sixfold Coordination 


  1. G.W. Brindley, H.A. McKinstry, The Kaolinite–Mullite reaction series: IV, the coordination of aluminum. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 44(10), 506–507 (1961)Google Scholar
  2. C. De Kimpe, M.C. Gastuche and G.W. Brindley, Am. Mineralogist. 49, 1, (1964)Google Scholar
  3. S. Udagawa, T. Nakada, M. Nakahira, Molecular structure of Allophane as revealed by its thermal transformation. in Proceedings of the International Clay Conference, vol. 1, ed. by Lisa Heller bisa Heller (Israil University Press, Gerusalem, 1969), p. 151Google Scholar
  4. Y. Tsuzuki, K. Nagasawa, A Transitional Stage to 980 ºC Exotherm of Kaolin Minerals. Clay. Sci. 3(5), 87–102 (1969)Google Scholar
  5. T. Egawa, Clay. Sci. 2, 1–7 (1964).Google Scholar
  6. Y. Suda, T. Noda, J. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 86, 78–82 (1965)Google Scholar
  7. R. Sadanaga, M. Tokonami and Y. Takeuchi, Structure of mullite, 2Al2O3.SiO2, and relationship with the structures of sillimaite and andalusite. Acta Crystallogr. 15, 65–68 (1982)Google Scholar
  8. M. Bulens, A. Leonard, B. Delmon, Spectroscopic investigations of the Kaolinite–Mullite reaction sequence. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 61 (1–2), 81–84 (1978)Google Scholar
  9. A.J. Leonard, Structural analysis of the transition phases in the Kaolinite– Mullite thermal sequence. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60 (1–2), 37–43 (1977)Google Scholar
  10. A.J. Leonard, P.N. Semaille, J.J. Fripiat, Structure and properties of amorphous Silico-Aluminous; IV, Proceedings of the British Ceramic Society, vol. 13 (1969), pp. 103–116Google Scholar
  11. E.W. White. H.A. McKinstry. and T.F. Bates, in Advances in X-Ray Analyses, vol. 2. ed. by M. W. Mueller (Denver Research Institute, Denver, Colo., 1959) p. 239-45Google Scholar
  12. E.W. White and G.V. Gibbs, Structural and chemical effects on the Si Kα X-Ray line for silicates. Am. Mineral. 52(7–8), 985–93 (1967)Google Scholar
  13. E.W. White and G.V. Gibbs, Structural and chemical effects on the AlKα X-ray emission band among aluminum containing silicates and aluminum oxides. ibid. 54(5–6), 931–36 (1969)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Refractory Central Glass & Ceramic Research InstituteJadavpurIndia

Personalised recommendations