State Support and Occupational Change
It is evident from our field surveys, as well as the secondary macro data analysed earlier, that the occupational status of the backward classes are of substantially lower grade compared to that of the advanced classes. Moreover, members of the backward classes are observed to be stuck in parental occupation, most of which are blue collar Grade-III jobs, more frequently compared to others. Such occupational stagnancy and resultant poor livelihood quality is reflected in the inadequate educational status of the second generation family members. This educational backwardness traps them in low occupation as well, creating a vicious cycle of low occupation of parents—low education of children—low occupation of children. In this section we briefly narrate our experience from the case studies where State has provided some benefits to the households from excluded classes.