Muslim Diaspora and European Identity: The Politics of Exclusion and Inclusion



This chapter analyses the presence of Muslims in the European Union. It is divided into three sections: The first section offers a brief historical account of the settlement of Muslim communities in the European Union and the formal advocacy of a European identity in response to various dilemmas deriving from their presence, the second section elaborates on what I call the four stages of interaction and, finally, the third section looks more closely at the politics of exclusion and inclusion. The chapter concludes by underlining that the presence of the Muslim diaspora in the European Union represents a growing concern both for the Muslims and Europeans, an aspect that further questions the relevance of the European Union’s official motto ‘united in diversity’.


Host Country Family Reunification European Economic Community National Minority Linguistic Minority 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Beck, U. (2008). The cosmopolitan vision. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, U., & Edgar, G. (2008). Cosmopolitan Europe. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  3. Cesari, J. (2010). Introduction. In J. Cesari (Ed.), Muslims in the West after 9/11: Religion, politics and law (pp. 1–6). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Checkel, J. T., & Katzenstein, P. J. (2009). The politicization of European identities. In J. T. Checkel & P. J. Katzenstein (Eds.), European identity (pp. 1–25). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Council of Europe. (1995). The framework convention for the protection of national minorities. Accessed 10 July 2011.
  6. Devetak, S. (2010). Elimination of discrimination as Foundation of Minorities Rights in the EU. Pravo i politika, (2), 11–32.Google Scholar
  7. Esman, M. J. (2009). Diasporas in the contemporary world. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. European Communities. (1973). The Copenhagen summit conference: Declaration on European identity. Bulletin of the European Communities, (12).Google Scholar
  9. European Union. (2007). Declaration on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the signature of the treaties of Rome. Accessed 10 May 2011.
  10. Ezli, Ö. (2007). The development of Turkish Islam in Germany. Accessed 1 July 2010.
  11. FRA. (2009). European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey. Data in focus report: Muslims. Accessed 1 July 2011.
  12. Fuller, T. (2002, December 24). Foreign workers face turning tide: Backlash in Europe. New York Times.Google Scholar
  13. Habermas, J. (2005). The inclusion of the other: Studies in political theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hamerijck, A. (2010). Social cohesion, welfare recalibration and the European Union. In M. Zupi & E. Estruch Puertas (Eds.), Challenges of social cohesion in times of crisis: Euro-Latin American dialogue (pp. 71–150). Madrid: FIIAPP and Editorial Complutense.Google Scholar
  15. Hollifield, J. F. (1992). Immigrants, markets and states: The political economy of postwar Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Joppke, C. (2009). Veil: Mirror of identity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  17. Kastoryano, R. (2004). Religion and incorporation: Islam in France and Germany. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1234–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kelsay, J. (1993). Islam and war. Louisville: John Knox Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kunelius, R., Eide, E., Hahn, O., & Schroeder, R. (2007). Reading the Mohammed cartoon controversy: An international analysis of press discourses on free speech and political spin. Bochum: Projekt Verlag.Google Scholar
  20. Lewis, B. (2003). The crisis of Islam: Holy war and unholy terror. London: Phoenix.Google Scholar
  21. Parliament of the United Kingdom. (1962). Commonwealth immigrants act 1962. Accessed 2 July 2011.
  22. Parliament of the United Kingdom. (1971). Immigration act 1971. Accessed 2 July 2011.
  23. Pêdziwiatr, K. (2007). Muslims in Europe: Demography and organizations. In Y. Samad & K. Sen (Eds.), Islam in the European Union (pp. 26–59). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Rifkin, J. (2004). The European dream. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  25. Rose, F. (2005, September 30). Muhammeds ansigt [The Face of Muhammed]. Jyllands-Posten.Google Scholar
  26. Safran, W. (1991). Diasporas in modern societies: Myths of homeland and return. Diaspora, 1(1), 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sheffer, G. (1986). Modern diasporas in international politics. London/Sydney: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, H. (2007). Diasporas in international conflict. In H. Smith & P. Stares (Eds.), Diasporas in conflict: Peace-makers or peace-wreckers? (pp. 3–16). Tokyo/New York/Paris: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Todorov, T. (2010). The fear of Barbarians: Beyond the clash of civilizations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. United Nations. (1976). The international covenant on civil and political rights. Accessed 10 July 2011.
  31. United Nations. (1992). The declaration on the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities. Accessed 1 July 2011.
  32. United Nations. (1993). The Vienna declaration and program of action. Accessed 10 July 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of East LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations