• Sant Saran Bhojwani
  • Prem Kumar Dantu


Normally, the egg cell requires the fertilization stimulus to form an embryo. However, it has the necessary genetic information to initiate embryogenesis independent of fertilization (Parthenogenesis). In some apomictic plants, the egg cell divides in total absence of a stimulus from the male gametes. In several other plants, it is possible to induce the egg or some other cell of the embryo sac (Apogamy) by external treatments, to divide and form an embryo (Bhojwani and Thomas 2001). Development of sporophytes from an unfertilized element of the female gametophyte (embryo sac) is termed gynogenesis. Since the ells of the embryo sac are haploid the plants derived from them are also haploid.


Female Gametophyte Donor Plant Helianthus Annuus Haploid Production Apomictic Plant 
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Suggested Further Reading

  1. Bhojwani SS, Thomas TD (2001) In vitro gynogenesis. In: Bhojwani SS, Soh WY (eds) Current trends in the embryology of angiosperms. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Juðkevièienë D, Stanya V, Bobinas É (2005) Gynogenesis peculiarities of Allium L. vegetables grown in Lithuania. Biologia 3:6–9Google Scholar
  3. Mól R (2003) In vitro gynogenesis as a method for haploid plant production. Biotechnologia 3:52–61Google Scholar
  4. San Noeum LH (1976) Haplöides d’ Hordeum vulgare L. par culture in vitro d’ ovaries non-fecondes. Ann Amelior Plant 26:751–754Google Scholar
  5. San Noeum LH, Gelebart P (1986) Production of gynogenetic haploids. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, Plant regeneration and genetic variability, vol 3. Academic Press, Orlando Google Scholar
  6. Thomas TD, Bhatnagar AK, Razdan MK, Bhojwani SS (1999) A reproducible protocol for the production of gynogenic haploids of mulberry, Morus alba L. Euphytica 110:169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Yang HY, Zhou C (1982) In vitro induction of haploid plants from unpollinated ovaries and ovules. Theor Appl Genet 63:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Yang HY, Zhou C (1990) In vitro gynogenesis. In: Bhojwani SS (ed) Plant tissue culture: applications and limitations. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University)AgraIndia

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