• Sant Saran Bhojwani
  • Prem Kumar Dantu


The basic event in the development of eukaryotes is the specialization of cells, which is termed as cytodifferentiation. One of the important objectives of developmental biology is to understand the cellular and subcellular events underlying the differentiation of specialized cells. The most studied example of cytodifferentiation is the formation of the vascular system comprised of the tracheary elements and the phloem elements. Vascular elements formed from the meristematic cells of stem apex, root tip, and vascular cambium are the early recognizable products of cytodifferentiation. Among the various in vitro systems, mesophyll cell cultures of Zinnia elegans has proved to be a model system to study cellular and subcellular aspects of tracheidal element (TE) differentiation. In this system relatively synchronous direct differentiation of single mesophyll cells into TE differentiation (transdifferentiation) occurs with high frequencies within 72 h of culture initiation.


Gibberellic Acid Mesophyll Cell Secondary Wall Tracheary Element Vascular Cambium 
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Suggested Further Reading

  1. Bolwell GP, Robertson D (1999) Differentiation of vascular elements in tissue culture. In: Soh WY, Bhojwani SS (eds) Morphogenesis in plant tissue cultures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
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  7. Turner S, Gallois P, Brown D (2007) Tracheary element differentiation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58:407–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational InstituteAgraIndia

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