Culture Media



The growth, development and morphogenic response of an explant in culture depends on its genetic make-up, surrounding environment and composition of the culture medium. The last of these is the easiest to manipulate. The success of a plant tissue culture experiment largely depends on the selection of right culture medium. The clue for developing a basic culture medium seems to have initially come from the nutritional requirements of plants growing in soil, and later from nutrient solutions used for whole plant culture. Some of the earliest plant tissue culture media, such as callus culture medium of Gautheret (1939) and root culture medium of White (1943), were based on Knop’s (1865) salt solution and Uspenski and Uspenskaia’s medium (1925) for algae, respectively. A basal plant tissue culture medium consists of inorganic salts of major and minor elements, vitamins and a sugar. It is variously supplemented with growth regulators and/or other nutrients depending on the culture system. The medium is used in liquid form or gelled with agar or any other gelling agent. pH of the medium is generally set at 5.8 before sterilizing it by autoclaving at 1.06 kg cm-2 for 15 minutes or by filtration. The chapter includes composition of some popular plant tissue culture media and describes the method to prepare them.


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Plant Tissue Culture Morphogenic Response Plant Tissue Culture Medium 
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Suggested Further Reading

  1. Adeyemi O, Aremu AO, Bairu MW, Dolezˇal K, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2012) Topolins: a panacea to plant tissue culture challenges? Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 108:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. De Fosard RA (1976) Tissue culture for plant propagators. University of New England, ArmidaleGoogle Scholar
  3. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. George EF, Hall MA and De Klert GJ (2008) Plant propagation by tissue culture, 3rd edn, Vol 1. The background. Springer, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  5. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Teyssier EF, Grondui C, Bohomme L, Lomenech AM, Vallance M, Morabito D, Label P, Lelu-Walter MA (2011) Increasing gelling agent concentration promotes somatic embryo maturation in hybrid larch (Larix eurolepsis): a 2DE proteomic analysis. Physiol Plant 141:152–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Trigiano RN, Gray DJ (2000) Plant tissue culture concepts and laboratory exercises. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. White PR (1963) The cultivation of animal and plant cells. Ronald Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational InstituteAgraIndia

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