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Genetic Engineering

  • Sant Saran Bhojwani
  • Prem Kumar Dantu
Chapter

Abstract

A serious limitation of the traditional method of sexual hybridization to improve crop plants is reproductive isolation of two species. The rapid progress in understanding the plant processes during the past four decades has led to perfection of tools and techniques that allow transfer of specific genes without disrupting the elite phenotype of the recipient plant. This highly sophisticated technique of genetic modification of plants, variously referred to as recombinant DNA (rDNA) Technology, Genetic Transformation, Genetic Engineering (GE), Molecular Breeding or Precision Breeding, is not limited by sexual reproductive isolation. Required genes from any source, bacteria, viruses, fungi, animals or completely unrelated plants, can be inserted in a functional form into the genome of a well established plant cultivar, and their expression can be regulated so that it is expressed throughout the plant or in a specific organ or specific tissue of an organ. The genetically engineered crop plants are referred to as Transgenic Crops or Genetically Modified (GM) crops, and the gene introduced is termed transgene. The transgenic technology has emerged as one of the most powerful methods for crop improvement and has already produced several improved crop varieties by introducing a completely novel trait or manipulating a known biochemical pathway. Tissue or organ specific RNAi vectors have recently proved to be useful for targeted gene silencing in specific plant tissues and organs with minimal interference with the normal plant life cycle.

Keywords

Transgenic Plant Genetically Modify Genetically Modify Crop Transgenic Crop Genetically Modify Food 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational Institute, (Deemed University)AgraIndia

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